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Bitcoin emissions alone could push global warming above 2°C

Matters Arising to this article was published on 28 August 2019

Matters Arising to this article was published on 28 August 2019

Matters Arising to this article was published on 28 August 2019

A Publisher Correction to this article was published on 14 November 2018

Bitcoin is a power-hungry cryptocurrency that is increasingly used as an investment and payment system. Here we show that projected Bitcoin usage, should it follow the rate of adoption of other broadly adopted technologies, could alone produce enough CO2 emissions to push warming above 2 °C within less than three decades.

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Fig. 1: Carbon emissions from projected Bitcoin usage.

Data availability

The authors declare that all data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article, its Supplementary Information files and at

Code availability

Raw code used for this study are publicly available online at


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The authors wish to thank the numerous data providers named in the supplements of this paper for making their data freely available. We also thank SeaGrant Hawaii for providing funds to acquire the computers used in these analyses. This paper was developed as part of the graduate course on ‘Methods for Large-Scale Analyses’ in the Department of Geography and Environment at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa.

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Correspondence to Camilo Mora.

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, Supplementary Figures 1-2, Supplementary Tables 1 – 4

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Mora, C., Rollins, R.L., Taladay, K. et al. Bitcoin emissions alone could push global warming above 2°C. Nature Clim Change 8, 931–933 (2018).

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