The Paris Agreement—which is aimed at holding global warming well below 2 °C while pursuing efforts to limit it below 1.5 °C—has initiated a bottom-up process of iteratively updating nationally determined contributions to reach these long-term goals. Achieving these goals implies a tight limit on cumulative net CO2 emissions, of which residual CO2 emissions from fossil fuels are the greatest impediment. Here, using an ensemble of seven integrated assessment models (IAMs), we explore the determinants of these residual emissions, focusing on sector-level contributions. Even when strengthened pre-2030 mitigation action is combined with very stringent long-term policies, cumulative residual CO2 emissions from fossil fuels remain at 850–1,150 GtCO2 during 2016–2100, despite carbon prices of US$130–420 per tCO2 by 2030. Thus, 640–950 GtCO2 removal is required for a likely chance of limiting end-of-century warming to 1.5 °C. In the absence of strengthened pre-2030 pledges, long-term CO2 commitments are increased by 160–330 GtCO2, further jeopardizing achievement of the 1.5 °C goal and increasing dependence on CO2 removal.

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The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 308329 (ADVANCE) as well as the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement no. 642147 (CD-LINKS). G.L., R.C.P. and M.P. were also supported by ENavi, one of the four Kopernikus Projects for the Energy Transition funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). J.R. acknowledges the support of the Oxford Martin School Visiting Fellowship programme. The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not in any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the European Commission.

Author information


  1. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, Potsdam, Germany

    • Gunnar Luderer
    • , Christoph Bertram
    • , Robert C. Pietzcker
    • , Michaja Pehl
    •  & Elmar Kriegler
  2. Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Edificio Expo, Sevilla, Spain

    • Zoi Vrontisi
    • , Kimon Keramidas
    • , Alban Kitous
    •  & Bert Saveyn
  3. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, E3MLab, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Athens, Greece

    • Zoi Vrontisi
  4. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague, the Netherlands

    • Oreane Y. Edelenbosch
    • , Harmen Sytze De Boer
    •  & Detlef P. Van Vuuren
  5. Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

    • Oreane Y. Edelenbosch
    • , Harmen Sytze De Boer
    •  & Detlef P. Van Vuuren
  6. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria

    • Joeri Rogelj
    • , Oliver Fricko
    • , Petr Havlík
    • , Volker Krey
    •  & Keywan Riahi
  7. Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

    • Joeri Rogelj
  8. Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • Joeri Rogelj
  9. Grantham Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK

    • Joeri Rogelj
  10. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Corso Magenta, Milan, Italy

    • Laurent Drouet
    • , Johannes Emmerling
    •  & Massimo Tavoni
  11. Fondazione Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Corso Magenta, Milan, Italy

    • Laurent Drouet
    • , Johannes Emmerling
    •  & Massimo Tavoni
  12. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

    • Shinichiro Fujimori
  13. Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto University Katsura Campus, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan

    • Shinichiro Fujimori
  14. Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park, MD, USA

    • Gokul Iyer
  15. Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Milan, Italy

    • Massimo Tavoni


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G.L., Z.V., V.K., E.K., K.R., B.S. and D.P.V.V. designed the research and scenarios; C.B., O.Y.E., R.C.P., H.S.D.B., L.D., J.E., O.F., S.F., P.H., G.I., A.K., K.K. and M.P. performed scenario modelling work; J.R. performed climate analysis; G.L. performed scenario data analysis in collaboration with C.B. and M.P.; G.L. created the figures and wrote the paper with inputs and feedback from all authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gunnar Luderer.

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