The interaction of gradual climate trends and extreme weather events since the turn of the century has triggered complex and, in some cases, catastrophic ecological responses around the world. We illustrate this using Australian examples within a press–pulse framework. Despite the Australian biota being adapted to high natural climate variability, recent combinations of climatic presses and pulses have led to population collapses, loss of relictual communities and shifts into novel ecosystems. These changes have been sudden and unpredictable, and may represent permanent transitions to new ecosystem states without adaptive management interventions. The press–pulse framework helps illuminate biological responses to climate change, grounds debate about suitable management interventions and highlights possible consequences of (non-) intervention.

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  • Correction 11 July 2018

    In the version of this Perspective originally published, affiliations 1 and 4 ware incorrect, and should have read: “1Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems CRC, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia” and “4Centre for Water, Climate and Land (CWCL), University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia”. These have been corrected in the online versions of this Perspective.


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This paper is the result of a workshop on climate variability and biodiversity (past, present, future), funded by The National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) and organized by N. Roslyn. D. Rosauer participated in the workshop. K. Henle (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ) gave helpful advice about management options.

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Author notes

  1. Unaffiliated: phenologist@gmail.com.


  1. Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    • R. M. B. Harris
    • , T. R. Vance
    • , C. R. Tozer
    •  & T. A. Remenyi
  2. Department of Conservation Biology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany

    • R. M. B. Harris
  3. Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • L. J. Beaumont
  4. Centre for Water, Climate and Land (CWCL), University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

    • C. R. Tozer
  5. Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
  6. ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
    •  & S. McGregor
  7. CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    • P. J. Mitchell
  8. Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

    • A. B. Nicotra
  9. School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

    • S. McGregor
  10. Centre of Excellence for Behavioural and Physiological Ecology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia

    • N. R. Andrew
  11. Centre for Ecosystem Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • M. Letnic
  12. School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    • M. R. Kearney
  13. UWA Oceans Institute & School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia

    • T. Wernberg
  14. Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Casuarina, Northern Territory, Australia

    • L. B. Hutley
  15. School of Geography, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

    • M.-S. Fletcher
  16. School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Creswick, Victoria, Australia

    • M. R. Keatley
  17. Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • C. A. Woodward
  18. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    • C. A. Woodward
  19. School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    • G. Williamson
    •  & D. M. J. S. Bowman
  20. TropWATER Centre, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

    • N. C. Duke


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R.M.B.H. and D.M.J.S.B. conceived the study, with input from all authors. R.M.B.H. led the writing. M. L. suggested the application of the Press-Pulse framework in this context. All authors contributed to the formulation of the paper and contributed to the first manuscript draft and subsequent revisions. T.A.R. created Fig. 1. T.V. created Fig. 2, based on data and analyses contributed by C.T., S.E.P-K, S.M., P.J.M. and T.A.R. L.J.B and R.M.B.H. created Fig. 3 and compiled the Supplementary Material. P.J.M., D.M.J.S.B. and N.D.C. contributed images to Fig. 3. R.M.B.H., L.J.B., N.R.A. and A.B.N. wrote the Introduction and Discussion. T.V. led the writing of the Climate drivers section, with contributions from C.T., S.E.P-K, R.M.B.H., S.M. and P.J.M. D.M.J.S.B. led the writing of the obligate seeder forest collapse and fire in Gondwanan refugia case studies, with analyses contributed by G.W. M.F. contributed to the fire in Gondwanan refugia case study. L.B.H. led the writing of the mangrove dieback case study, with contributions from N.C.D. T.W. and L.E.C. wrote the kelp forest regime shift case study. M.L. and M.K. wrote the arid zone boom and bust case study. P.J.M. and C.W. wrote the riverine forest decline case study.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. M. B. Harris.

Supplementary information

  1. Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Notes 1-6, Supplementary Figures S1, S2, S1.3.1, S1.3.2, S1.41, S1.42, S1.51, S1.52, S1.61, S1.62

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