The 2015 Paris Agreement calls for countries to pursue efforts to limit global-mean temperature rise to 1.5 °C. The transition pathways that can meet such a target have not, however, been extensively explored. Here we describe scenarios that limit end-of-century radiative forcing to 1.9 W m−2, and consequently restrict median warming in the year 2100 to below 1.5 °C. We use six integrated assessment models and a simple climate model, under different socio-economic, technological and resource assumptions from five Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Some, but not all, SSPs are amenable to pathways to 1.5 °C. Successful 1.9 W m−2 scenarios are characterized by a rapid shift away from traditional fossil-fuel use towards large-scale low-carbon energy supplies, reduced energy use, and carbon-dioxide removal. However, 1.9 W m−2 scenarios could not be achieved in several models under SSPs with strong inequalities, high baseline fossil-fuel use, or scattered short-term climate policy. Further research can help policy-makers to understand the real-world implications of these scenarios.

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We thank the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) for hosting and maintaining the SSP Scenario Database of the Integrated Assessment Modelling Consortium (IAMC), and thank P. Kolp for his reliable support with the administration of and access to scenario data, and administration of the database infrastructure. J.R., O.F., V.K., K.R., G.L., E.K. and A.P. have received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement no. 642147 (CD-LINKS), no. 641816 (CRESCENDO) and the Framework Programme 7 under grant agreement no. 308329 (ADVANCE). J.S. has received funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the SPP ED 178/3-1 (CEMICS). S.F. and T.H. are supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K18177, and the Global Environmental Research Fund 2–1702 of the Ministry of Environment of Japan. J.R. acknowledges the support of the Oxford Martin Visiting Fellowship Programme.

Author information


  1. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria

    • Joeri Rogelj
    • , Shinichiro Fujimori
    • , Tomoko Hasegawa
    • , Volker Krey
    • , Keywan Riahi
    • , Oliver Fricko
    •  & Petr Havlík
  2. Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

    • Joeri Rogelj
  3. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, Potsdam, Germany

    • Alexander Popp
    • , Gunnar Luderer
    • , Jessica Strefler
    • , Elmar Kriegler
    •  & Florian Humpenöder
  4. Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park, MD, USA

    • Katherine V. Calvin
    •  & Jae Edmonds
  5. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy

    • Johannes Emmerling
    • , Giacomo Marangoni
    • , Laurent Drouet
    •  & Massimo Tavoni
  6. Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Milan, Italy

    • Johannes Emmerling
    • , Giacomo Marangoni
    • , Laurent Drouet
    •  & Massimo Tavoni
  7. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague, The Netherlands

    • David Gernaat
    • , Detlef P. van Vuuren
    • , Jonathan Doelman
    • , Mathijs Harmsen
    •  & Elke Stehfest
  8. Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

    • David Gernaat
    • , Detlef P. van Vuuren
    •  & Mathijs Harmsen
  9. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

    • Shinichiro Fujimori
    •  & Tomoko Hasegawa
  10. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy

    • Massimo Tavoni


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J.R. coordinated the conception and writing of the paper, performed the scenario analysis and created the figures; J.R., K.V.C., A.P., G.L., J.Em., S.F., E.K., K.R. and D.P.v.V. designed the scenarios, which were developed and contributed by all modelling teams, with notable contributions from S.F., T.H. (AIM/CGE), K.V.C., J.Ed. (GCAM), D.G., E.S., J.D., M.H., D.P.v.V. (IMAGE), O.F., P.H., V.K., J.R., K.R. (MESSAGE-GLOBIOM), J.S., F.H., A.P., G.L., E.K. (REMIND-MAgPIE) and J.Em., G.M., L.D. and M.T. (WITCH-GLOBIOM); all authors provided feedback and contributed to writing the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joeri Rogelj.

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