The Paris Agreement is based on emission scenarios that move from a sluggish phase-out of fossil fuels to large-scale late-century negative emissions. Alternative pathways of early deployment of negative emission technologies need to be considered to ensure that climate targets are reached safely and sustainably.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council Synergy grant ERC-SyG-2013-610028 IMBALANCE-P.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) Laxenburg, Laxenburg, Austria

    • Michael Obersteiner
    • , Johannes Bednar
    • , Fabian Wagner
    • , Thomas Gasser
    • , Nicklas Forsell
    • , Stefan Frank
    • , Petr Havlik
    •  & Hugo Valin
  2. Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

    • Fabian Wagner
  3. Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, Essonne, France

    • Philippe Ciais
  4. Department of Biology, University of Antwerpen, Antwerpen, Belgium

    • Ivan A. Janssens
  5. CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain

    • Josep Peñuelas
  6. CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain

    • Josep Peñuelas
  7. UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network, Paris, France

    • Guido Schmidt-Traub

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael Obersteiner.

Supplementary information

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-017-0045-1

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