Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

DNA nanotechnology

Non-complementary computation

Molecular computing programmed with complementary nucleic acid strands allows the construction of sophisticated biomolecular circuits. Now, systems with partially complementary strands have been shown to enable more compact and faster molecular circuits, and may illuminate biological processes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: An AND logic gate implemented with strand displacement and strand commutation.


  1. Nikitin, M. P. Nat. Chem. (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Douglas, S. M., Bachelet, I. & Church, G. M. Science 335, 831–834 (2012).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Dey, S. et al. Nat. Rev. Methods Primers 1, 1–24 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Simmel, F. C., Yurke, B. & Singh, H. R. Chem. Rev. 119, 6326–6369 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Zadeh, J. N. et al. J. Comput. Chem. 32, 170–173 (2011).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Qian, L. & Winfree, E. Science 332, 1196–1201 (2011).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Cherry, K. M. & Qian, L. Nature 559, 370–376 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Song, T. et al. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 1075–1081 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Zhang, J. X. et al. Nat. Chem. 10, 91–98 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chatterjee, G., Dalchau, N., Muscat, R. A., Phillips, A. & Seelig, G. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 920–927 (2017).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Grigory Tikhomirov.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Petersen, P., Tikhomirov, G. Non-complementary computation. Nat. Chem. 15, 9–11 (2023).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing