Ribosomes cannot synthesize peptides using hydroxy acids to replace canonical amino acids as no codons encode hydroxy acid building blocks. Now, this challenge has been addressed by rewriting the genetic code, enabling the direct cellular biosynthesis of non-natural depsipeptides containing non-canonical amino acids.
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Li, J. Cellular decoding for non-natural peptides. Nat. Chem. 15, 7–8 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-022-01114-9