The adsorption of molecules onto a surface from solution generally proceeds spontaneously by means of an equilibrium process. Now, it has been shown that macrocycles can be pumped onto a MOF substrate through the formation of mechanical bonds in a ratcheting mechanism that results in an out-of-equilibrium state.
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Zhang, L. When push comes to shove. Nat. Chem. 14, 125–128 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-021-00876-y