Comment | Published:

Neutron stardust and the elements of Earth

Nature Chemistryvolume 11pages410 (2019) | Download Citation

At its inception, the periodic table sorted elements by weight, so it may be surprising that the heaviest natural element on Earth remains controversial, or at best, nebulous. In the strange, perhaps-unfinished search for this weightiest nucleus, the only definitive conclusion is that it lies somewhere beyond uranium.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Additional information

Twitter: @geochembrett, @WPIBurdette

Change history

  • 10 January 2019

    In the version of this Comment originally published, the image was incorrectly credited to Chelsea Anne Bar; it should have been to Brett F. Thornton. This has now been corrected.

References

  1. 1.

    Bensaude-Vincent, B. Brit. J. Hist. Sci. 15, 183–188 (1982).

  2. 2.

    Thornton, B. F. & Burdette, S. C. Nat. Chem. 5, 979–981 (2013).

  3. 3.

    Karol, P. J., Barber, R. C., Sherrill, B. M., Vardaci, E. & Yamazaki, T. Pure Appl. Chem. 88, 139–153 (2016).

  4. 4.

    Karol, P. J., Barber, R. C., Sherrill, B. M., Vardaci, E. & Yamazaki, T. Pure Appl. Chem. 88, 155–160 (2016).

  5. 5.

    Hofmann, S. et al. Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 180 (2016).

  6. 6.

    Oganessian, Y. T., Sobiczewski, A. & Ter-Akopian, G. M. Phys. Scripta 92, 023003 (2017).

  7. 7.

    Pyykkö, P. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 161–168 (2011).

  8. 8.

    Karol, P. J. Chem. Int. 39, 10 (2017).

  9. 9.

    Fricke, B., Greiner, W. & Waber, J. T. Theoret. Chim. Acta 21, 235–260 (1971).

  10. 10.

    Türler, A. & Pershina, V. Chem. Rev. 113, 1237–1312 (2013).

  11. 11.

    Thomsen, J. Z. Anorg. Chemie 9, 283–288 (1895).

  12. 12.

    Swinne, R. Naturwissenschaften 7, 529–530 (1919).

  13. 13.

    Kragh, H. in From Transuranic to Superheavy Elements: A Story of Dispute and Creation (ed. Kragh, H.) 1–16 (Springer, 2018).

  14. 14.

    Hulubei, H. & Cauchois, Y. C. R. Acad. Sci. 209, 476–479 (1939).

  15. 15.

    Tsaletka, R. & Lapitskii, A. Russ. Chem. Rev. 29, 684–689 (1960).

  16. 16.

    Essien, I. O. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 147, 269–275 (1991).

  17. 17.

    Winkler, S. R., Steier, P. & Carilli, J. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 359, 124–130 (2012).

  18. 18.

    Seaborg, G. T. & Perlman, M. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70, 1571–1573 (1948).

  19. 19.

    Curtis, D., Fabryka-Martin, J., Dixon, P. & Cramer, J. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63, 275–285 (1999).

  20. 20.

    Peppard, D. F., Mason, G. W., Gray, P. R. & Mech, J. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74, 6081–6084 (1952).

  21. 21.

    Kenna, B. T. & Kuroda, P. K. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 26, 493–499 (1964).

  22. 22.

    Attrep, M. & Kuroda, P. K. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 30, 699–703 (1968).

  23. 23.

    Casali, N. et al. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 41, 075101 (2014).

  24. 24.

    Karlik, B. & Bernert, T. Naturwissenschaften 30, 685–686 (1942).

  25. 25.

    Perey, M. C. R. Acad. Sci. 208, 97 (1939).

  26. 26.

    Tissot, F. L. H., Dauphas, N. & Grossman, L. Sci. Adv. 2, 1501400 (2016).

  27. 27.

    Yin, Q., Jacobsen, S. B. & Yamashita, K. Nature 415, 881–883 (2002).

  28. 28.

    Turner, G. et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 261, 491–499 (2007).

  29. 29.

    Kasen, D., Metzger, B., Barnes, J., Quataert, E. & Ramirez-Ruiz, E. Nature 551, 80–84 (2017).

  30. 30.

    Brennecka, G. A. et al. Science 327, 449–451 (2010).

  31. 31.

    Turner, G., Harrison, T. M., Holland, G., Mojzsis, S. J. & Gilmour, J. Science 306, 89–91 (2004).

  32. 32.

    Hoffman, D. C., Lawrence, F. O., Mewherter, J. L. & Rourke, F. M. Nature 234, 132–134 (1971).

  33. 33.

    Kuroda, P. K. Acc. Chem. Res. 12, 73–78 (1979).

  34. 34.

    Lachner, J. et al. Phys. Rev. C 85, 015801 (2012).

  35. 35.

    Connelly, J. Science 327, 422–423 (2010).

  36. 36.

    Tanvir, N. R. et al. Nature 500, 547–549 (2013).

  37. 37.

    Hotokezaka, K., Piran, T. & Paul, M. Nat. Phys. 11, 1042–1044 (2015).

  38. 38.

    Kuroda, P. K. J. Chem. Phys. 25, 781–782 (1956).

  39. 39.

    Baudin, G. et al. C. R. Acad. Sci. 275, 2291–2294 (1972).

  40. 40.

    Cowan, G. A. Sci. Am. 235, 36–47 (1976).

  41. 41.

    Bentridi, S.-E., Gall, B., Gauthier-Lafaye, F., Seghour, A. & Medjadi, D.-E. C. R. Geosci. 343, 738–748 (2011).

  42. 42.

    Bros, R., Carpena, J., Sere, V. & Beltritti, A. Radiochim. Acta 74, 277 (1996).

  43. 43.

    Meshik, A. P., Hohenberg, C. M. & Pravdivtseva, O. V. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 182302 (2004).

  44. 44.

    Essien, I. & Kuroda, P. Geochem. J. 18, 101–108 (1984).

  45. 45.

    Levine, C. A. & Seaborg, G. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 3278–3283 (1951).

  46. 46.

    Thielemann, F.-K. Nat. Phys. 11, 993–994 (2015).

  47. 47.

    Wallner, A. et al. Nat. Commun. 6, 6956 (2015).

  48. 48.

    Goriely, S. & Martínez Pinedo, G. Nucl. Phys. A 944, 158–176 (2015).

  49. 49.

    Wallner, C. et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 172, 333–337 (2000).

  50. 50.

    Wallner, C. et al. New Astron. Rev. 48, 145–150 (2004).

  51. 51.

    Paul, M. et al. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 272, 243–245 (2007).

  52. 52.

    Donnelly, J. et al. Astrophys. J. 747, 40 (2012).

  53. 53.

    Maurette, M., Pellas, P. & Walker, R. M. Nature 204, 821–823 (1964).

  54. 54.

    Stoyer, M. A. Nature 442, 876–877 (2006).

  55. 55.

    Zagrebaev, V., Karpov, A. & Greiner, W. J. Phys. Conf. Series 420, 012001 (2013).

  56. 56.

    Alexeev, V. et al. Astrophys. J. 829, 120–137 (2016).

  57. 57.

    Lingenfelter, R. E., Higdon, J. C., Kratz, K. L. & Pfeiffer, B. Astrophys. J. 591, 228–237 (2003).

  58. 58.

    Dzuba, V. A., Flambaum, V. V. & Webb, J. K. Phys. Rev. A 95, 062515 (2017).

  59. 59.

    Gopka, V. F., Yushchenko, A. V., Yushchenko, V. A., Panov, I. V. & Kim, C. Kinemat. Phys. Celest. Bod. 24, 89–98 (2008).

  60. 60.

    Ackermann, D. & Theisen, C. Phys. Scr. 92, 083002 (2017).

  61. 61.

    Ter-Akopian, G. M. & Dmitriev, S. N. Nucl. Phys. A 944, 177–189 (2015).

  62. 62.

    Swinne, R. Zeits. Techn. Phys. 7, 205–216 (1926).

  63. 63.

    Stephens, W., Klein, J. & Zurmühle, R. Phys. Rev. C 21, 1664–1666 (1980).

  64. 64.

    Dmitriev, S. N. et al. JINR Rapid Commun. 5, 13–20 (1988).

  65. 65.

    Barton, J. C., Hatton, C. J. & McMillan, J. E. J. Phys. G 17, 1901–1907 (1991).

  66. 66.

    Popeko, A. G. in Exciting Interdisciplinary Physics: Quarks and Gluons / Atomic Nuclei / Relativity and Cosmology / Biological Systems (ed Walter Greiner) 43–54 (Springer, 2013).

  67. 67.

    Belli, P. et al. Phys. Scr. 90, 085301 (2015).

  68. 68.

    Flerov, G., Ter-Akop’yan, G., Skobelev, N., Popeko, A. & Ivanov, M. Yadernaya Fizika 20, 472–482 (1974).

  69. 69.

    Flerov, G. N. et al. Z. Phys. A 292, 43–48 (1979).

  70. 70.

    Testov, D. A. et al. Phys. Atom. Nucl. 72, 1–5 (2009).

  71. 71.

    Svirikhin, A. et al. AIP Conf. Proc. 1175, 297–300 (2009).

  72. 72.

    Marinov, A. et al. Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 19, 131–140 (2010).

  73. 73.

    Marinov, A. et al. Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 18, 621–629 (2009).

  74. 74.

    Korschinek, G. & Kutschera, W. Nucl. Phys. A 944, 190–203 (2015).

  75. 75.

    Ludwig, P. et al. Phys. Rev. C 85, 024315 (2012).

  76. 76.

    Dellinger, F. et al. Phys. Rev. C 83, 015801 (2011).

  77. 77.

    Dellinger, F. et al. Phys. Rev. C 83, 065806 (2011).

  78. 78.

    Chowdhury, P. R., Samanta, C. & Basu, D. N. Phys. Rev. C 77, 044603 (2008).

  79. 79.

    Dean, T. New Sci. 199, 32–35 (2008).

  80. 80.

    Haxton, W. C. et al. Phys. Rev. C 28, 467–470 (1983).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Geological Sciences and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Brett F. Thornton
  2. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA

    • Shawn C. Burdette

Authors

  1. Search for Brett F. Thornton in:

  2. Search for Shawn C. Burdette in:

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Brett F. Thornton or Shawn C. Burdette.

About this article

Publication history

Published

Issue Date

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-018-0190-9

Further reading

Newsletter Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing