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Robust gold nanorods stabilized by bidentate N-heterocyclic-carbene–thiolate ligands

Nature Chemistryvolume 11pages5763 (2019) | Download Citation


Although N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have demonstrated outstanding potential for use as surface anchors, synthetic challenges have limited their application to either large planar substrates or very small spherical nanoparticles. The development of a strategy to graft NHCs onto non-spherical nanomaterials, such as gold nanorods, would greatly expand their utility as surface ligands. Here, we use a bidentate thiolate–NHC–gold(i) complex that is easily grafted onto commercial cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-stabilized gold nanorods through ligand exchange. On mild reduction of the resulting surface-tethered NHC–gold(i) complexes, the gold atom attached to the NHC complex is added to the surface as an adatom, thereby precluding the need for reorganization of the underlying surface lattice upon NHC binding. The resulting thiolate–NHC-stabilized gold nanorods are stable towards excess glutathione for up to six days, and under conditions with large variations in pH, high and low temperatures, high salt concentrations, or in biological media and cell culture. We also demonstrate the utility of these nanorods for in vitro photothermal therapy.

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The authors thank the National Science Foundation (CHE-1351646) for support of this work.

Author information


  1. Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA

    • Michelle J. MacLeod
    • , Aaron J. Goodman
    • , Hong-Zhou Ye
    • , Hung V.-T. Nguyen
    • , Troy Van Voorhis
    •  & Jeremiah A. Johnson


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M.J.M. and J.A.J. conceived the idea. M.J.M. conducted all synthesis and characterization studies. A.J.G. conducted laser irradiation experiments. H.Y. and T.V.V. conducted DFT calculations. H.V.-T.N. conducted cell culture assays. M.J.M. and J.A.J. wrote the manuscript. All authors read and revised the manuscript.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeremiah A. Johnson.

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    Detailed methods and materials, experimental protocols, characterization data (such as spectral data), Supplementary Figures 1–45 and Supplementary Table 1

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