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Made in translation

Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

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Author information


  1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Chemistry, and the Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA

    • John C. Chaput


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Corresponding author

Correspondence to John C. Chaput.