The multifaceted contributions of mitochondria to cellular metabolism

Abstract

Although classically appreciated for their role as the powerhouse of the cell, the metabolic functions of mitochondria reach far beyond bioenergetics. In this Review, we discuss how mitochondria catabolize nutrients for energy, generate biosynthetic precursors for macromolecules, compartmentalize metabolites for the maintenance of redox homeostasis and function as hubs for metabolic waste management. We address the importance of these roles in both normal physiology and in disease.

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Fig. 1: Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell.
Fig. 2: Mitochondria are biosynthetic hubs.
Fig. 3: Mitochondria balance redox equivalents.
Fig. 4: Mitochondria orchestrate waste management.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Sarah Tucker and Liam Kelley for editing this article. J.B.S is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship DGE1144152. M.C.H. is supported by the Ludwig Center at Harvard and NIH grant R01CA213062.

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Spinelli, J.B., Haigis, M.C. The multifaceted contributions of mitochondria to cellular metabolism. Nat Cell Biol 20, 745–754 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-018-0124-1

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