Most prosthetic limbs can autonomously move with dexterity, yet they are not perceived by the user as belonging to their own body. Robotic limbs can convey information about the environment with higher precision than biological limbs, but their actual performance is substantially limited by current technologies for the interfacing of the robotic devices with the body and for transferring motor and sensory information bidirectionally between the prosthesis and the user. In this Perspective, we argue that direct skeletal attachment of bionic devices via osseointegration, the amplification of neural signals by targeted muscle innervation, improved prosthesis control via implanted muscle sensors and advanced algorithms, and the provision of sensory feedback by means of electrodes implanted in peripheral nerves, should all be leveraged towards the creation of a new generation of high-performance bionic limbs. These technologies have been clinically tested in humans, and alongside mechanical redesigns and adequate rehabilitation training should facilitate the wider clinical use of bionic limbs.
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We were supported by the Academy of Finland (I.V.), Austrian Federal Ministry of Science (A.S. and O.C.A.), Bertarelli Foundation (S.M.), the European Union (A.S., D.F., K.-P.H., O.C.A., R.B. and S.M.), the European Research Council (A.S., D.F. and O.C.A.), German Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF (K.-P.H. and T.S.), the German National Research Foundation (T.S.), the Royal British Legion (A.M.J.B.), the Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA) (R.B.), the Swedish Research Council (R.B.), the Swiss National Competence Center in Research (NCCR) in Robotics (S.M.), US Department of Defense (R.B. and H.H.), US Department of Veterans Affairs (D.T.), US Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service (R.F.ff.W.), US National Institute on Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research (H.H. and T.K.), US National Institutes of Health (D.T., H.H., L.J.H. and R.F.ff.W.), US National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R.F.ff.W.), US National Institute on Bioimaging and Bioengineering (R.F.ff.W.) and US National Science Foundation (H.H.).
L.J.H. and T.K. have a financial interest in Coapt LLC (https://www.coaptengineering.com). S.M. is a co-founder of Sensars Neuroprosthetics (https://www.sensars.com). T.S. is a co-founder and scientific advisor of CorTec GmbH (https://www.cortec-neuro.com) and neuroloop GmbH (https://www.neuroloop.de). R.F.ff.W. is a co-founder and president of Point Designs Llc (https://www.pointdesignsllc.com). H.D. and B.G. are scientific managers at Ottobock SE & Co. KGaA. T.I. and K.K. are scientific officers at Össur Iceland. R.B. is the founder and chairman of Integrum AB. A.M.J.B. is co-founder and director of Biomex Ltd.
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Farina, D., Vujaklija, I., Brånemark, R. et al. Toward higher-performance bionic limbs for wider clinical use. Nat Biomed Eng (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00732-x