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Discrimination of the behavioural dynamics of visually impaired infants via deep learning


Sensory loss is associated with behavioural changes, but how behavioural dynamics change when a sensory modality is impaired remains unclear. Here, by recording under a designed standardized scenario, the behavioural phenotypes of 4,196 infants who experienced varying degrees of visual loss but retained high behavioural plasticity, we show that behaviours with significantly higher occurrence in visually impaired infants can be identified, and that correlations between the frequency of specific behavioural patterns and visual-impairment severity, as well as variations in behavioural dynamics with age, can be quantified. We also show that a deep-learning algorithm (a temporal segment network) trained with the full-length videos can discriminate, for an independent dataset from 400 infants, mild visual impairment from healthy behaviour (area under the curve (AUC) of 85.2%), severe visual impairment from mild impairment (AUC of 81.9%), and various ophthalmological conditions from healthy vision (with AUCs ranging from 81.6% to 93.0%). The video dataset of behavioural phenotypes in response to visual loss and the trained machine-learning algorithm should help the study of visual function and behavioural plasticity in infants.

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Fig. 1: Overall study pipeline.
Fig. 2: Occurrence and magnitude of behaviours in various visual conditions.
Fig. 3: Quantification of vision-behaviour correlations for various visual conditions.
Fig. 4: Self-learning phenotypic features by deep learning.
Fig. 5: Deep-learning-based detection of ophthalmological conditions.
Fig. 6: Deep-learning-based detection of ophthalmological conditions not overlapping with the training set.
Fig. 7: Diagnosis of each ophthalmological condition by using deep learning.
Fig. 8: Characteristics of signals for known behaviours in the trained network.

Data availability

The authors declare that the main data supporting the results in this study are available within the paper and its Supplementary Information. The datasets generated during the study and representative videos for each behaviour are available for research purposes from the corresponding authors on reasonable request. The raw videos are not publicly available due to restrictions of portrait rights and patient privacy.

Code availability

We used the temporal segment network framework ( Our experimental protocol made use of proprietary libraries and we are unable to publicly release this code. However, we detail the experiments and implementation details in the Methods and Supplementary Information.


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We thank the National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou for computing resources support. This study was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC0116500), the Key Research Plan for the National Natural Science Foundation of China in Cultivation Project (91846109), the Natural Science Foundation of China (81822010), Guangdong Science and Technology Innovation Leading Talents (2017TX04R031), and the Pearl River Scholar Program (2016).

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Authors and Affiliations



H.L., E.L. and Z.Liu designed the research; H.L., X.L., Z.Lin, Z.Liu, J.L., J.C., X.W., W.L., E.L., H.C., R.L., Y.Y., W.C. and Y.L. collected the data; Y.X., A.X., X.H., Y.Zhang, Z.Z., X.D. and E.L. conducted the study; E.L. and J.H. analysed the data; H.L. and E.L. co-wrote the manuscript; Z.Liu, Y.Zhu and C.C. critically revised the manuscript; W.Z. did the technical review; and all authors discussed the results and provided comments regarding the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Haotian Lin or Yizhi Liu.

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Long, E., Liu, Z., Xiang, Y. et al. Discrimination of the behavioural dynamics of visually impaired infants via deep learning. Nat Biomed Eng 3, 860–869 (2019).

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