Complex molecular and metabolic phenotypes depict cancers as a constellation of different diseases with common themes. Precision imaging of such phenotypes requires flexible and tunable modalities capable of identifying phenotypic fingerprints by using a restricted number of parameters while ensuring sensitivity to dynamic biological regulation. Common phenotypes can be detected by in vivo imaging technologies, and effectively define the emerging standards for disease classification and patient stratification in radiology. However, for the imaging data to accurately represent a complex fingerprint, the individual imaging parameters need to be measured and analysed in relation to their wider spatial and molecular context. In this respect, targeted palettes of molecular imaging probes facilitate the detection of heterogeneity in oncogene-driven alterations and their response to treatment, and lead to the expansion of rational-design elements for the combination of imaging experiments. In this Review, we evaluate criteria for conducting multiplexed imaging, and discuss its opportunities for improving patient diagnosis and the monitoring of therapy.
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The authors at Imperial College would like to acknowledge programmatic funding from Cancer Research UK and UK Medical Research Council. The authors at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center would like to acknowledge the National Institutes of Health for financial support, the generous support of The Mr. William H. and Mrs. Alice Goodwin, and the Commonwealth Foundation for Cancer Research as well as The Center for Experimental Therapeutics of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The authors are grateful to S. Poty for reading the manuscript and for helpful discussions.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Heinzmann, K., Carter, L.M., Lewis, J.S. et al. Multiplexed imaging for diagnosis and therapy. Nat Biomed Eng 1, 697–713 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-017-0131-8
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