When characterizing dynamic processes, ergodicity—that is, the equivalence of time averages and of averages over a system’s possible microstates—is often invoked. Yet many complex social, economic and material systems are such that practical observations cannot survey the entire ensemble of microstates. In the case of non-ergodic fluids, their slow structural dynamics makes such an approach prohibitive. Blood is a prominent example of a non-ergodic, complex fluid for which today’s standards for coagulation tests in vivo are chemically induced offline assays. Here, we show that heterodyne amplification—that is, amplification of a signal by frequency conversion—combined with suitable control of spatiotemporal coherence permits measurements of non-stationary dynamics in non-ergodic, complex media. By taking advantage of this approach, we developed an optical-fibre-based tool that can be directly incorporated into standard vascular-access devices for real-time monitoring of blood coagulability in the operating room.
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This work was partially supported by the National Institutes of Health and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute under grant number 5R21HL124486.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Guzman-Sepulveda, J., Argueta-Morales, R., DeCampli, W. et al. Real-time intraoperative monitoring of blood coagulability via coherence-gated light scattering. Nat Biomed Eng 1, 0028 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-017-0028
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