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Rapid contraction of giant planets orbiting the 20-million-year-old star V1298 Tau

Subjects

Abstract

Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years1,2. These theoretical expectations remain untested so far as the detection and characterization of very young planets is extremely challenging due to the intense stellar activity of their host stars3,4. Only the recent discoveries of young planetary transiting systems allow initial constraints to be placed on evolutionary models5,6,7. With an estimated age of 20 million years, V1298 Tau is one of the youngest solar-type stars known to host transiting planets; it harbours a system composed of four planets, two Neptune-sized, one Saturn-sized and one Jupiter-sized8,9. Here we report a multi-instrument radial velocity campaign of V1298 Tau, which allowed us to determine the masses of two of the planets in the system. We find that the two outermost giant planets, V1298 Tau b and e (0.64 ± 0.19 and 1.16 ± 0.30 Jupiter masses, respectively), seem to contradict our knowledge of early-stages planetary evolution. According to models, they should reach their mass–radius combination only hundreds of millions of years after formation. This result suggests that giant planets can contract much more quickly than usually assumed.

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Fig. 1: Phase-folded plots of the RV signals for the two planets of the V1298 Tau planetary system with significant mass measurements.
Fig. 2: Planets of V1298 Tau in the context of the known planets.
Fig. 3: Planets of V1298 Tau in the context of the models of planetary evolution.

Data availability

The RV, LCOGT and K2 time series are available at https://cloud.iac.es/index.php/s/jto2dxfHRF2Aw2B. The public high-resolution spectroscopic raw data used in the study can be freely downloaded from the corresponding facility archives. Proprietary raw data are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Source data are provided with this paper.

Code availability

The SERVAL template-matching radial velocity measurement tool, celerite, George, emcee, dynesty, RadVel, PyTransit, AstroImageJ, SYNPLE, StePar, FERRE and MOOG are easily accessible open-source projects. Additional software is available upon request.

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Acknowledgements

A.S.M. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under the 2019 Juan de la Cierva Programme. J.I.G.H. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish MICINN under the 2013 Ramón y Cajal programme RYC-2013-14875. A.S.M., J.I.G.H., R.R., B.T.-P., N.L., M.R.Z.O., E.G.-A., J.A.C., P.J.A. and I.R. acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through projects AYA2017-86389-P, PID2019-109522GB-C53, PID2019-109522GB-C51, AYA2016-79425-C3-3-P, PID2019-109522GB-C52 and PGC2018-098153-B-C33. M.D. acknowledges financial support from the FP7-SPACE Project ETAEARTH (GA no. 313014). A.M., D.L., G.M., A.S. and S.D. acknowledge partial contribution from the agreement ASI-INAF no. 2018-16-HH.0. S.B., D.L., G.M. and D.T. acknowledge partial contribution from the agreement ASI-INAF no. 2021-5-HH.0. P.J.A. acknowledges financial support from the project SEV-2017-0709. S.D., V.D., S.B. and D.T. acknowledge support from the PRIN-INAF 2019 ‘Planetary systems at young ages’ (PLATEA). D.S.A. thanks the Leverhulme Trust for financial support. I.R. acknowledges the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. E.G.-A acknowledges support from the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) project no. MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu’ Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, CSIC/INTA). D.T. acknowledges the support of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) through the INAF Main Stream project ‘Ariel and the astrochemical link between circumstellar discs and planets’ (CUP: C54I19000700005). E.E.-B. acknowledges financial support from the European Union and the State Agency of Investigation of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under grant PRE2020-093107 of the Pre-Doc Program for the Training of Doctors (FPI-SO) through FEDER, FSE and FDCAN funds. This work is based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei (FGG) of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). CARMENES is an instrument at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). This work is based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescopes in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. This work is based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, owned in collaboration by the University of Turku and Aarhus University, and operated jointly by Aarhus University, the University of Turku and the University of Oslo (representing Denmark, Finland and Norway), the University of Iceland and Stockholm University; the telescope is located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

A.S.M. wrote the main text of the manuscript. A.S.M., V.J.S.B., J.I.G.H., M.R.Z.O. and C.d.B. wrote the methods section of the manuscript. A.S.M. and M.D. performed the radial velocity analysis. N.L., A.S., V.J.S.B., G.M., R.R., S.B., C.C.G., G.N., R.L., E.P., A.S.M., M.D., P.J.A., E.G.-A. and M.W. coordinated the acquisition of the radial velocities. V.J.S.B., F. Murgas, E.P., H.P., E.E.-B. and M.M. coordinated the acquisition of the photometry. A.S.M., B.T.-P., F.F.B. and T.G. performed the extraction of radial velocities. F. Murgas performed the extraction of the photometry. V.J.S.B., M.R.Z.O., J.I.G.H., C.d.B., H.M.T., D.S.A., N.L., E.L.M. and P.C. determined the stellar properties of V1298 Tau and HD 284154. R.C., A.M. and D.T. contributed to the discussion on planetary evolution. R.R., A.S., M.R.Z.O., V.J.S.B. and G.M. organized the collaboration between the different teams. M.D., A.S., S.B., G.M., S.D., R.C., L.M., V.D., D.L., F. Marzari, D.T. and A.M. are members of the GAPS consortium. P.J.A., J.A., J.A.C., A.Q., A.R., I.R., M.R.Z.O., V.J.S.B., J.I.G.H., N.L, G.N., R.L., E.P., M.O., E.L.M. and R.R. are members of the CARMENES consortium. L.M. participated in the discussion of stellar activity. T.G., K.G.S. and M.W. are members of the STELLA consortium. All authors were given the opportunity to review the results and comment on the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Suárez Mascareño.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Extended data

Extended Data Fig. 1 Best synthetic spectral fit of the HARPS-N spectrum of V1298 Tau.

The interpolated SYNPLE synthetic spectrum without rotational broadening computed for the derived best-fit stellar parameters and metallicity (a), the broadened spectrum with a rotational velocity of 24 km s−1 (b) and the observed HARPS-N 1D spectrum of V1298 Tau (black line) together with the best-fit synthetic spectrum (purple line) are displayed in the spectral range 5350–5850 Å (c).

Source data

Extended Data Fig. 2 The lithium spectral region of V1298 Tau and HD 284154.

Spectral region of the lithium doublet around 6708 Å of the solar ATLAS spectrum broadened with a rotation profile of 24 km s−1 (a), the HARPS-N spectrum of V1298 Tau (b), and the FIES spectrum of the double-lined spectroscopic binary HD 284154 (c), together with the best-fit MOOG synthetic spectra.

Source data

Extended Data Fig. 3 Position of V1298 Tau and HD 284154 in the colour-magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams.

a: Colour-magnitude diagram of V1298 Tau and HD 284154A and B (separate components) and the other group 29 members along with various PARSEC isochrones. The 20-Myr isochrone nicely reproduces the sequence of stars with colours G − Ks < 3.5 mag while the 10- and 30-Myr isochrones provide acceptable upper and lower envelopes to the observed dispersion of the Group 29 sequence. b: Location of V1298 Tau (red) and HD 284154 (blue) in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. HD 284154 is decomposed into two equal mass and equal luminosity stars. The tracks for masses between 1.0 and 1.9 M are also shown and are labeled with the mass value in solar units. Note that the luminosity axis is in logarithmic scale. The error bar in luminosity is of the size of the symbol.

Extended Data Fig. 4 Phase-folded plots of the RV signals for the two planets of the V1298 Tau planetary system for which we could not confirm the RV signals.

a: Phase-folded representation of the best-fitting Keplerian orbit (red line) for V1298 Tau c. b: Same for V1298 Tau d. c and d: Residuals after the fit for both cases. For a better visualisation, only HARPS and CARMENES data have been included. In all cases, 1σ error bars (internal RV uncertainties) of the measurements are shown.

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Extended Data Fig. 5 Accuracy of the recovered planetary amplitudes of the different methods.

Recovered planetary amplitude against injected planetary amplitude in the simulated datasets for the four planets in the system.

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Extended Data Fig. 6 Corner plot of the parameters of the best model fit (PQP2).

Posterior distributions of all the parameters sampled for the best model fit along with the correlation maps between them.

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Extended Data Fig. 7 RV time series with the best model fit of V1298 Tau and their periodograms.

a: Full time series with the best fit model combining stellar activity and planetary signals. The stellar activity model represented is a weighted average of the models used for the different spectral ranges. b: Activity induced RV after subtracting the planetary signal. c: Planetary RV component, after subtracting the stellar induced signal. d: Residuals after the fit. 1σ error bars (internal RV uncertainties) of the measurements are shown. The right panel of each figure shows the periodogram of the data with their associated levels of false alarm probability. The positions of the activity, and planetary, signals are indicated with red and blue vertical lines, respectively.

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Extended Data Fig. 8 RV time series of the activity component of V1298 Tau for all instruments.

Zoom to the section of the campaign with the largest density of observations. Panel a shows the HARPS-N data after subtracting the planetary component along with the best fit model for the activity component. Panels b, c and d show the CARMENES data, SES data and HERMES data, respectively. 1σ error bars (internal RV uncertainties) of the measurements are shown.

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Extended Data Fig. 9 LCOGT V-band photometry.

Time series of the LCOGT V-band photometry with the best fit obtained from the global analysis. b: Zoom to a well-sampled section. 1σ error bars (internal uncertainties) of the measurements are shown.

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Extended Data Fig. 10 K2 photometry.

Time series of the K2 photometry with the best fit obtained from the global analysis. a: K2 data with the full fit. b: Data detrended from stellar activity with the best fit to the transits. c,d,e and f: Phase-folded plots of the transits of the four planets.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

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Suárez Mascareño, A., Damasso, M., Lodieu, N. et al. Rapid contraction of giant planets orbiting the 20-million-year-old star V1298 Tau. Nat Astron 6, 232–240 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-021-01533-7

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