Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • News & Views
  • Published:


Observing early stellar nucleosynthesis

A fluorine abundance measurement in a high-redshift galaxy demonstrates an early, quick rise in chemical enrichment of the Universe. The presence of fluorine at this early epoch also reveals a unique early source of the element.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: A collage of what a massive star-forming galaxy at z = 4.4 (~1.4 Gyrs after the Big Bang) might look like with possible sources of fluorine indicated.

NASA Image Collection / Alamy Stock Photo


  1. Franco, M. et al. Nat. Astron. (2021).

  2. Spitoni, E. et al. Astron. Astrophys. 612, A16 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Vescovi, D. et al. Astron. Astrophys. 652, A100 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Limongi, M. & Chieffi, A. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 237, 13 (2018).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. Meynet, G. & Arnould, M. Astron. Astrophys. 355, 176–180 (2000).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. Palacios, A., Arnould, M. & Meynet, G. Astron. Astrophys. 443, 243–250 (2005).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. Li, H. N., Ludwig, H.-G., Caffau, E., Christlieb, N. & Zhao, G. Astrophys. J. 765, 51 (2013).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. Agertz, O. et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 503, 5826–5845 (2021).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. Steidel, C. C. et al. Astrophys. J. 826, 159 (2016).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  10. Cullen, F. et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 505, 903–920 (2021).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Nils Ryde or Graham Harper.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ryde, N., Harper, G. Observing early stellar nucleosynthesis. Nat Astron 5, 1212–1213 (2021).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing