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Recalibrated ALMA data are also available from the public archive under project id 2019.A.00023.S. The calibrated JCMT data are available from the public archive under project id S16BP007.
The scripts we developed to produce the ALMA PH3 spectra following ‘JAO-based’ processing are available in the Supplementary Software. The scripts uid…2020Nov.py apply Callisto bandpass solutions, and imaging options are in scriptForImAllCallinBPTEST202Nov.py.
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The team of ref. 2 thank the many ALMA staff who contributed tirelessly and speedily to this reprocessing project, developing new tests and techniques in a very short time period. The work was led from ESO with input from JAO and NAASC. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2019.A.00023.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan) and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The JAO is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Astronomy thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of thiswork.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Top: (y-offsets for clarity only) ‘JAO/Berkeley-CASA’ whole planet spectrum, digitised from Villanueva et al.1 and converted to flux-density using the standard Venus model of ref. 2. The overlaid red-dashed curve is our radiative transfer model for PH3, scaled for a fixed 1 ppb abundance, as a guide to detection limits. Bottom: our equivalent whole-planet spectrum following similar processing (Supplementary Information) and subtracting a 2nd-order polynomial as in ref. 1.
Left: ad-hoc altitude-profile with eddy diffusion coefficient Kzz greatly increased in the mesosphere compared to the sparse in situ constraints (Venera 9/1010; Pioneer11; purple shaded region is from Luginin et al.12). Middle: corresponding atmospheric profile of PH3, compared to the ref. 2 profile. The red bar illustrates <5 ppb of PH3 from 10 micron IR-observations13. The fixed 100 ppb of PH3 at lower altitudes illustrates a possible abundance from Pioneer Venus; the instrument-calibration description14 suggests tens to hundreds ppb for the count rate extracted by Mogul et al.9. Right: the PH3 1-0 line that would be observed in this test model, along with the flat profile that the ref. 2 photochemistry would have produced.
Supplementary Figs. 1–3 and Discussion.
The data can be re-reduced taking the known issues into account: using a recent version of CASA to improve the primary beam correction, correct use of the model for Callisto as bandpass calibrator, and an option for deriving the bandpass table from Callisto using averaging followed by smoothing. Scripts are uid___A002_Xd90607_X10526.ms.scriptForCalibrationTEST2020Nov.py and uid___A002_Xd90607_X10f75.ms.scriptForCalibrationTEST2020Nov.py. Various imaging options based on this calibration are included in scriptForImAllCallinBPTEST202Nov.py.
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Greaves, J.S., Richards, A.M.S., Bains, W. et al. Reply to: No evidence of phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus from independent analyses. Nat Astron 5, 636–639 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-021-01424-x
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