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Reliability of AI-generated magnetograms from only EUV images

Matters Arising to this article was published on 12 February 2021

The Original Article was published on 04 March 2019

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Fig. 1: Example of the observations and the AI-generated magnetograms.

Data availability

SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI data are publicly available from NASA’s SDO website ( Details of the dataset we used are available at Source data are provided with this paper.

Code availability

Codes for the AI models built in this paper are available at Codes used for the detection of active regions are available upon request from the corresponding author.


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We acknowledge the use of the data from the SDO, which is the first mission for the NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) programme. J.L. and R.E. thank the STFC (UK, grant number ST/M000826/1) and EU H2020 (SOLARNET grant number 158538) for funding. J.L. also acknowledges support from the STFC under grant number ST/P000304/1 and from the Leverhulme Trust via grant number RPG-2019-371. R.E. also acknowledges the support from the Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI, grant number 2019VMA0052) and The Royal Society (grant number IE161153). Yimin Wang thanks the Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics (SoMaS) at the University of Sheffield for the warm hospitality and support received as an MSRC Visiting Research Fellow while carrying out this research. M.B.K. thanks the STFC for support under grant number ST/S000518/1. X.H. acknowledges the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 11873060).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



J.L. led and conducted the data preparation and data analysis and drafted the manuscript. Yimin Wang led and performed the machine learning approach with Y.J. and M.B.K. contributing to the discussions. R.E., X.H. and J.L. recognized the core problems. R.E. suggested and led the overall research. Yuming Wang helped with the automated detection of active regions. All authors contributed to discussions and participated in the interpretation of the results. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robert Erdélyi.

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Peer review informationNature Astronomy thanks Nick Arge and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Discussion, Figs. 1–4 and References 1–13.

Source data

Source Data Fig. 1

Source data for Fig. 1. Variables can be restored using IDL; use keyword /verb to see description of variables when restoring.

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Liu, J., Wang, Y., Huang, X. et al. Reliability of AI-generated magnetograms from only EUV images. Nat Astron 5, 108–110 (2021).

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