In the local (redshift z ≈ 0) Universe, collisional ring galaxies make up only ~0.01% of galaxies1 and are formed by head-on galactic collisions that trigger radially propagating density waves2,3,4. These striking systems provide key snapshots for dissecting galactic disks and are studied extensively in the local Universe5,6,7,8,9. However, not much is known about distant (z > 0.1) collisional rings10,11,12,13,14. Here we present a detailed study of a ring galaxy at a look-back time of 10.8 Gyr (z = 2.19). Compared with our Milky Way, this galaxy has a similar stellar mass, but has a stellar half-light radius that is 1.5–2.2 times larger and is forming stars 50 times faster. The extended, diffuse stellar light outside the star-forming ring, combined with a radial velocity on the ring and an intruder galaxy nearby, provides evidence for this galaxy hosting a collisional ring. If the ring is secularly evolved15,16, the implied large bar in a giant disk would be inconsistent with the current understanding of the earliest formation of barred spirals17,18,19,20,21. Contrary to previous predictions10,11,12, this work suggests that massive collisional rings were as rare 11 Gyr ago as they are today. Our discovery offers a unique pathway for studying density waves in young galaxies, as well as constraining the cosmic evolution of spiral disks and galaxy groups.
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The imaging data presented here are publicly available from the ZFOURGE survey website (http://zfourge.tamu.edu/) and from the 3D-HST archive (https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/3d-hst/). The spectroscopic data of this work were based on observations made with the Keck telescope from the W. M. Keck Observatory. The raw spectroscopic data can be accessed through the publicly available Keck Observatory Archive (https://www2.keck.hawaii.edu/koa/public/koa.php). The reduced data and other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
The customized MOSFIRE spectroscopic fitting code used in this work can be found here (http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/~tyuan/mosfit/). Scripts related to EAGLE simulations analysis in this paper are available from A.E. (firstname.lastname@example.org) on reasonable request. Other scripts related to the analysis in this paper are available from T.Y. on reasonable request.
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This research was supported by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Astronomy thanks Ronald J. Buta, Curtis Struck and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Yuan, T., Elagali, A., Labbé, I. et al. A giant galaxy in the young Universe with a massive ring. Nat Astron 4, 957–964 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-020-1102-7
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