Regenerative water sources on surfaces of airless bodies

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Spectroscopic signatures of water and hydroxyl radicals have been observed on the surfaces of asteroids1,2,3. As the lifetime of the exposed water ice is on the order of 104 to 106 yr in the inner asteroid belt4, there must be mechanisms to replenish the water in the absence of recent ice-exposing processes. However, such regenerative water-ice sources on asteroids are still elusive. Here we perform laboratory experiments by exposing the samples of the Murchison meteorite to energetic electrons and laser irradiation, simulating, respectively, the secondary electrons generated by the solar wind as well as galactic cosmic ray particles and the micrometeorites impacting on an asteroid. We find that a single simulated space-weathering component is insufficient and both are needed to regenerate water at low temperatures at the desired timescales. We propose that two main mechanisms can be the source of surface water on asteroids: low-temperature oxidation of organics and mineral dehydration.

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Fig. 1: Infrared absorption spectra of the Murchison meteorite.
Fig. 2: Temporal evolution and kinetic fits.
Fig. 3: Quadrupole mass spectrometry profiles recorded during TPD.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.

Code availability

The iSALE-2D hydrocode can be accessed at


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This work was supported by NASA under grant NNX16AO79G, awarded to R.I.K. and the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa. We also acknowledge the W. M. Keck Foundation for funding the construction of the surface-science machine. P. Crandall (University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Department of Chemistry) provided advice to operate the charged-particle source and the laser. J.P. Bradley (University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology) provided advice on the thermal effects of the laser. G.D. acknowledges support by NSF grant 1616992.

Author information

R.I.K and J.J.G.-D designed the experiments. S.G., C.Z., M.J.A. and R.F. performed the experiments. G.D. and K.M. carried out the theoretical analyses. R.I.K., C.Z. and J.J.G.-D. wrote the manuscript, which was read, revised and approved by all co-authors.

Correspondence to Jeffrey J. Gillis-Davis or Ralf I. Kaiser.

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