In 1951, three separate research groups established radio astronomy as a contender to the dominance of optical astronomy. Using the interstellar 21-cm line, they provided a method to look deeper into our own Galaxy and back in time to the birth of all galaxies.
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Chapman, E. Tuning in to the cosmic dawn. Nat Astron 3, 298–299 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-019-0752-9