About 35 years ago a class of galaxies with unusually strong Balmer absorption lines and weak emission lines was discovered in distant galaxy clusters1,2. These objects, alternatively referred to as post-starburst, E+A or k+a galaxies, are now known to occur in all environments and at all redshifts3,4,5,6,7, with many exhibiting compact morphologies and low-surface brightness features indicative of past galaxy mergers3,8. They are commonly thought to represent galaxies that are transitioning from blue to red sequence, making them critical to our understanding of the origins of galaxy bimodality9,10,11,12,13,14. However, recent observational studies have questioned this simple interpretation15,16,17,18. From observations alone, it is challenging to disentangle the different mechanisms that lead to the quenching of star formation in galaxies. Here we present examples of three different evolutionary pathways that lead to galaxies with strong Balmer absorption lines in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulation19,20: classical blue → red quenching, blue → blue cycle and red → red rejuvenation. The first two are found in both post-starburst galaxies and galaxies with truncated star formation. Each pathway is consistent with scenarios hypothesized for observational samples2,15,18,21,22. The fact that ‘post-starburst’ signatures can be attained via various evolutionary channels explains the diversity of observed properties, and lends support to the idea that slower quenching channels are important at low redshift23,24.
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The raw data used in this paper are available to download from the EAGLE public database http://icc.dur.ac.uk/Eagle/database.php. The case study galaxies presented here can be identified via their unique galaxyid. The database is described in refs. 40,69. The eigenvectors and PC amplitudes for SDSS DR7 spectra presented in Fig. 3 and Supplementary Fig. 4 are available for download from http://www-star.st-and.ac.uk/ vw8/downloads/DR7PCA.html. The PCA code and morphological analysis code are available for download from https://github.com/SEDMORPH. The spectral synthesis models used to build the spectra from the EAGLE star formation histories are available for download from http://www.bruzual.org/bc03/Updated_version_2016/.
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M.M.P. and V.W. acknowledge support of the European Research Council (SEDMorph, principal investigator V.W.). S.M. acknowledges support from the Academy of Finland, grant number 314238. R.A.C. is a Royal Society University Research Fellow. V.W. thanks A. Werle for his help investigating the PC amplitude offsets. This work was supported by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (grant number ST/P000541/1). This work used the DiRAC Data Centric system at Durham University, operated by the Institute for Computational Cosmology on behalf of the STFC DiRAC HPC Facility (www.dirac.ac.uk). This equipment was funded by BIS National E-infrastructure capital grant ST/K00042X/1, STFC capital grant ST/H008519/1 and STFC DiRAC Operations grant ST/K003267/1 and Durham University. DiRAC is part of the National E-Infrastructure.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Pawlik, M.M., McAlpine, S., Trayford, J.W. et al. The diverse evolutionary pathways of post-starburst galaxies. Nat Astron 3, 440–446 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-019-0725-z