The surface of Mars has been well mapped and characterized, yet the subsurface — the most likely place to find signs of extant or extinct life and a repository of useful resources for human exploration — remains unexplored. In the near future this is set to change.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) for kick-starting this work through a KISS Workshop held 12–16 February 2018 at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Studies (CIFAR) for allowing this discussion to expand with the Earth 4D workshop. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA

    • V. Stamenković
    • , L. W. Beegle
    • , D. D. Arumugam
    • , N. Barba
    • , R. Bhartia
    • , M. S. Burgin
    • , V. Cormarkovic
    • , C. Edwards
    • , T. Komarek
    • , M. Malaska
    • , M. Mischna
    • , J. Plaut
    • , M. Russell
    • , H. Sapers
    • , M. Tuite
    • , B. Wilcox
    •  & R. Woolley
  2. Honeybee Robotics, New York, NY, USA

    • K. Zacny
  3. ESA, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

    • P. Baglioni
  4. University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • J. Baross
  5. Jacobs@NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA

    • M. S. Bell
  6. Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, USA

    • J. G. Blank
  7. NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, USA

    • J. G. Blank
    • , P. J. Boston
    • , A. Davila
    •  & L. Rothschild
  8. DLR Institute of Planetary Research of the German Aerospace Centre, Berlin, Germany

    • D. Breuer
    • , A.-C. Plesa
    •  & T. Spohn
  9. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

    • W. Brinckerhoff
    •  & D. P. Glavin
  10. Schlumberger, Houston, TX, USA

    • I. Cooper
  11. NASA Headquarters, Washington DC, USA

    • R. M. Davis
  12. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma 2, Italy

    • G. Etiope
  13. Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

    • G. Etiope
  14. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA

    • W. W. Fischer
    • , J. L. Kirschvink
    •  & V. J. Orphan
  15. Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, USA

    • R. E. Grimm
  16. Research and Development Centre for Ocean Drilling Science, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Japan

    • F. Inagaki
  17. Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, JAMSTEC, Nankoku, Japan

    • F. Inagaki
  18. Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo, Japan

    • J. L. Kirschvink
    •  & A. Kobayashi
  19. Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

    • J. Michalski
  20. Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 7154, Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris, France

    • B. Ménez
  21. Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV, USA

    • D. Moser
  22. Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

    • J. Mustard
    •  & J. D. Tarnas
  23. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

    • T. C. Onstott
  24. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA

    • M. R. Osburn
  25. Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ, USA

    • N. Putzig
  26. Earth & Environmental Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA

    • K. L. Rogers
  27. University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • B. Sherwood Lollar
  28. Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

    • D. Viola
  29. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

    • L. M. Ward

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Stamenković.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-018-0676-9

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