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Silicate–SiO reaction in a protoplanetary disk recorded by oxygen isotopes in chondrules

Abstract

The formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos during the earliest stages of the solar protoplanetary disk largely determined the composition and structure of the terrestrial planets. Within a few million years of the birth of the Solar System, chondrule formation and the accretion of the parent bodies of differentiated achondrites and the terrestrial planets took place in the inner protoplanetary disk1,2. Here we show that, for chondrules in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites, high-precision Δ17O values (where Δ17O is the deviation of the δ17O value from a terrestrial silicate fractionation line) vary significantly (ranging from −0.49 to +0.84‰) and fall on an array with a steep slope of 1.27 on a three-oxygen-isotope plot. This array can be explained by the reaction between an olivine-rich chondrule melt and an SiO-rich gas derived from vaporized dust and nebular gas. Our study suggests that a large proportion of the building blocks of planetary embryos formed by successive silicate–gas interaction processes: silicate–H2O followed by silicate–SiO interactions under more oxidized and reduced conditions, respectively, within a few million years of the formation of the Solar System.

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Figure 1: Oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrule and enstatite separates from enstatite chondrites.
Figure 2: Mineralogical characteristics of the silica-rich chondrule (SRC).
Figure 3: Oxygen isotopic compositions of enstatite chondrite chondrules and enstatite and compiled bulk achondrites.

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Acknowledgements

We thank M.R.M. Izawa, Y. Shimaki, T. Kunihiro and G.E. Bebout for their constructive suggestions, which improved this paper. We also thank Y. Shimaki and K. Tanaka for assistance in the laboratory. We are grateful for the loan of the meteorites from the National Institute of Polar Research and the Natural History Museum in Vienna. This study was partly supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant Number 16K05578).

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R.T. designed the study, analysed the data and wrote the paper. E.N. was involved in the study design. Both authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Ryoji Tanaka.

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Tanaka, R., Nakamura, E. Silicate–SiO reaction in a protoplanetary disk recorded by oxygen isotopes in chondrules. Nat Astron 1, 0137 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-017-0137

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