Table 2 Examples of solvents, as well as nanomaterials and polymers used in solution blending

From: Review of nanomaterials-assisted ion exchange membranes for electromembrane desalination

Solvent Nanomaterial Polymer(s) Refs.
Acetic acid Phosphonated GO (PGO) Chitosan (CS) 34
N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) Sulfonated GO (SGO) Nafion 163
SGO Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) 102
SGO Sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) 101
GO SPES 97
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) Nafion 164
SiO2 Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) 38,120
Sulfonated SiO2 (SS) Sulfonated poly(arylene ether ether ketone ketone) (SPAEEKK) 123
SS Polybenzimidazole (PBI) 165
SS Sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (SPPEK) 124
SiO2 SPPEK 166
SiO2 Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) 167
SiO2 SPES 168
TiO2 Quaternized polysulfone (QPSU) 140
TiO2 Chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSU) 169
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) Quaternized GO (QGO) QPSU 39
Sulfonated organosilane functionalized GO (SSi-GO) SPEEK 103
SS Sulfonated poly (2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (SPPO) 170
Sulfonated mesoporous SiO2 (SMS) SPES 35,125,158
SiO2 SPPO 121
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) GO SPI 43
APTEOS (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) functionalized GO (A-GO) Quaternized polyethyleneimine /Poly (vinyl alcohol) (QPEI/PVA) 36
MWCNTs Sulfonated poly[bis(benzimidazobenzisoquinolinones)] (SPBIBI) 44
SMS SPI 161
Ethanol Sulfonated TiO2 nanotube (S–TiO2–NTs) Nafion 141
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) SiO2 Nafion 122
m-Cresol Dihydrogen phosphate functionalized GO (H2P-GO) SPI 171
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) Polyaniline (PANI)-MWCNTs Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 172
MWCNTs PVC 72
MWCNTs Polycarbonate/styrene–butadiene rubber (PC/SBR) 66
Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) PVC 142
Iron (II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) PVC 145
Zeolite PVC 150
Zinc oxide (ZnO) PVC 157
Water GO Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) 173
GO PVA 98
MWCNTs PVA 75
Sulfonated MWCNTs (S-MWCNTs) Sulfonated PVA (SPVA) 65
Phenyl-SMS (Ph-SMS) PVA 160