Fig. 6 | npj Clean Water

Fig. 6

From: Review of nanomaterials-assisted ion exchange membranes for electromembrane desalination

Fig. 6

Some methods of functionalization of CNTs. a Grafting of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) onto MWCNT via ozonization of PVA. Ozonation is a useful method of chemically attaching polymers to NMs. A solution of PVA is purged with ozone gas to generate radicals on the chains of the PVA. These radicals on the PVA chains then enable the chemical binding of the PVA onto the MWCNTs.75 b Schematic representation of synthesis of sulfonated MWCNTs (S-MWCNTs) through a series of reactions with a mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3 (3:1 by volume %); Thionyl Chloride (SOCl2); and aminomethanesulfonic acid.65 Figures reproduced with permission from a ref. 75, © 2011 Elsevier; b ref. 65, 2011 Elsevier

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