Fig. 10 | npj Clean Water

Fig. 10

From: Review of nanomaterials-assisted ion exchange membranes for electromembrane desalination

Fig. 10

Effect of NMs content on aggregation and consequently mechanical strength of IEMs. a, b Cross-section and Si elemental analysis of sulfonated polyimide/sulfonated mesoporous silica (SPI/SMS) with 3 wt. % SMS. c, d Cross-section and Si elemental analysis of SPI/SMS with 10 wt. % SMS. This figure depicts the uniform dispersion (a) and aggregation (c) of SMS in SPI based IEMs.161 The elemental analysis gives a qualitative indication of the Si content in each of the IEMs. The increased aggregation led to a drastic decline in the mechanical strength (the tensile strength reduced from 48 to 24 MPa, the elastic modulus fell from 912 to 586 MPa, and the elongation at break dropped from 11.0 to 2.9%). Figure reproduced with permission from ref. 161, © 2011 Elsevier

Back to article page