Table 3 Concentration of GM3 and GD3 in human milk subjected to different heat treatments and storage times

From: Application of industrial treatments to donor human milk: influence of pasteurization treatments, storage temperature, and time on human milk gangliosides

Storage time No heat treatment HT-1 HT-2 HT-3 HT-4
  Room temperature (23 °C/40% RH) Cold temperature (4 °C) Room temperature (23 °C/40% RH) Cold temperature (4 °C) Room temperature (23 °C/40% RH) Cold temperature (4 °C) Room temperature (23 °C/40% RH) Cold temperature (4 °C) Room temperature (23 °C/40% RH) Cold temperature (4 °C)
[GM3] (mg/L)           
Day 7 8.96 ± 0.52 8.97 ± 0.72 9.05 ± 0.33 9.07 ± 0.76 9.58 ± 0.95 9.55 ± 0.80 9.14 ± 0.28 9.25 ± 1.23 9.19 ± 0.29 9.20 ± 0.79
Day 30 8.94 ± 0.25 8.96 ± 0.66 8.83 ± 0.85 9.06 ± 0.23 9.45 ± 0.36 9.60 ± 0.14 9.27 ± 0.67 9.28 ± 0.300 9.52 ± 0.017 9.62 ± 0.68
Day 60 8.91 ± 0.35 9.08 ± 0.91 8.95 ± 0.04 8.96 ± 0.08 9.69 ± 0.76 9.65 ± 0.64 9.14 ± 0.05 9.25 ±0.52 9.34 ± 0.23 9.45 ± 0.74
Day 90 8.93 ± 0.53 9.10 ± 0.21 8.98 ± 0.38 9.00 ± 0.17 9.41 ± 0.64 9.69 ± 0.66 9.18 ± 0.88 9.26 ± 0.24 9.28 ± 0.58 9.40 ± 0.65
[GD3] (mg/L)           
Day 7 5.71 ± 0.38 5.59 ± 0.23 5.64 ± 0.12 5.62 ± 0.19 5.77 ± 0.21 5.83 ± 0.30 5.65 ±0.17 5.73 ± 0.12 5.76 ± 0.10 5.78 ± 0.19
Day 30 5.57 ± 0.17 5.63 ± 0.33 5.60 ± 0.29 5.63 ± 0.29 5.76 ± 0.04 5.73 ± 0.24 5.66 ±0.18 5.69 ± 0.14 5.75 ± 0.15 5.75 ± 0.12
Day 60 5.554 ± 0.19 5.64 ± 0.14 5.65 ± 0.17 5.66 ± 0.10 5.74 ± 0.13 5.79 ± 0.15 5.65 ±0.25 5.75 ± 0.18 5.68 ± 0.14 5.70 ± 0.14
Day 90 5.472 ± 0.10 5.59 ± 0.13 5.63 ± 0.08 5.66 ± 0.02 5.76 ± 0.07 5.86 ± 0.12 5.65 ± 0.22 5.67 ± 0.12 5.57 ± 0.13 5.68 ± 0.14
  1. Results expressed as mg ganglioside/L human milk (n = 3). Results expressed as mean ± standard deviation (n = 3)
  2. HT-1 Holder pasteurization (63 °C/30 min), HT-2 standard high-temperature-short-time pasteurization (72 °C/15 s), HT-3 extended shelf-life protocol (127 °C/5 s), HT-4, ultrahigh-temperature pasteurization (140 °C/6 s), RH relative humidity