Fig. 2 | npj Quantum Materials

Fig. 2

From: Controlling heat and particle currents in nanodevices by quantum observation

Fig. 2

Particle and energy currents in the steady state. In ac, the observation is performed at site α, while in df on site β. b, e show the heat current in the upper, \(j_{{\rm{up}}}^h\), and lower branch, \(j_{{\rm{down}}}^h\). In order to allow comparison of the both, the upper current is plotted as a curved surface, while the lower energy current has been projected onto the plane below. We emphasize that this contour plot is a projection onto the plane, only the color gradient indicates its strength. A positive current (red) represents heat flowing from left to the right. In c, f the particle current in the upper branch is shown. A positive current indicates that a particle ring-current is flowing clockwise. The triangles labeled 1, 2, and 3 in e mark regions where the energy flow is to the right in both branches, in different directions in each branch, and to the left in both branches, respectively. A temperature gradient of 10−3 a.u. corresponds to around 300 K and a particle current of 3×10−7 a.u. orresponds to 2 nA