Abstract
The recently demonstrated trapping and laser cooling of ^{133}Ba^{+} has opened the door to the use of this nearly ideal atom for quantum information processing. However, before highfidelity qubit operations can be performed, a number of unknown state energies are needed. Here, we report measurements of the ^{2}P_{3/2} and ^{2}D_{5/2} hyperfine splittings, as well as the ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}S_{1/2} and ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}D_{5/2} transition frequencies. Using these transitions, we demonstrate highfidelity ^{133}Ba^{+} hyperfine qubit manipulation with electron shelving detection to benchmark qubit state preparation and measurement (SPAM). Using singleshot, threshold discrimination, we measure an average SPAM fidelity of \({\mathcal{F}}=0.99971(3)\), a factor of ≈2 improvement over the best reported performance of any qubit.
Introduction
Quantum error correction allows an imperfect quantum computer to perform reliable calculations beyond the capability of classical computers^{1,2,3}. However, even with the lowest reported error rates^{4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12}, the number of qubits (N_{q}) required to achieve fault tolerance is projected^{13} to be significantly larger than the state of the art^{14,15,16}. Nonetheless, noisy intermediatescale quantum (NISQ) devices^{17} are currently being employed to tackle important problems without fault tolerance^{18,19,20,21,22,23,24}.
For these NISQ devices, singleshot state preparation and measurement (SPAM) infidelity (ϵ_{s}) causes a reduction in computational fidelity that is exponential in qubit number, \({{\mathcal{F}}}_{s}={(1{\epsilon }_{\mathrm s})}^{{N}_{\mathrm q}}\) (uncorrelated errors). The requirement to perform faithful SPAM therefore limits the number of qubits to \({N}_{\mathrm {q}}\,<\,{\mathrm{ln}}\,(2)/{\epsilon }_{\mathrm {s}}\). While state readout error correction techniques can effectively lower measurement infidelity, they generally require a number of measurements that grows exponentially with N_{q} and singleshot readout infidelity^{25}. For these reasons, and given the desire to increase N_{q} to tackle problems beyond the reach of classical computers, it is important to develop new means to improve ϵ_{s}.
The A = 133 isotope of barium provides a potential path to improving fidelities in atomic ion quantum computing, as this isotope combines the advantages of many different ion qubits into a single system^{26}. ^{133}Ba^{+} has nuclear spin I = 1/2, which as we show here, allows fast, robust state preparation and readout of the hyperfine qubit. It possesses both hyperfine and optical m_{F} = 0 “clock” state qubits, which are relatively insensitive to magnetic fields (m_{F} is the projection quantum number of the total angular momentum F)^{27}. It also possesses metastable ^{2}D_{J} states (τ ~ 1 min), allowing highfidelity readout, and longwavelength transitions enabling the use of photonic technologies developed for the visible and nearinfrared spectrum. However, before these advantages can be realized, a number of unknown hyperfine and electronic transition frequencies must be determined.
Here, we measure the previously unknown ^{2}P_{3/2} and ^{2}D_{5/2} hyperfine structure, as well as the ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}S_{1/2} and ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}D_{5/2} electronic transition frequencies. Using this knowledge, we demonstrate ^{133}Ba^{+} hyperfine qubit manipulation and electron shelving detection. Employing a threshold discrimination and modest fluorescence collection optics (0.28 NA), we measure an average singleshot SPAM fidelity of \({\mathcal{F}}=0.99971(3)\), the highest reported for any qubit.
In what follows, we first present qubit SPAM using standard hyperfineselective optical cycling^{28,29} combined with arbitrary qubit rotations and a composite pulse sequence for highfidelity state transfer. We then present measurement of the unknown hyperfine and electronic transition frequencies. Finally, we use this information to demonstrate highfidelity SPAM using electron shelving.
Results
Qubit manipulation and hyperfineselective SPAM
The hyperfine qubit is defined on the pair of m_{F} = 0 “clock” states in the ^{2}S_{1/2} manifold as \(\left0\right\rangle\) \(\equiv \leftF=0\right\rangle\) and \(\left1\right\rangle\) \(\equiv \leftF=1;{m}_{F}=0\right\rangle\). This hyperfine qubit is initialized to the \(\left0\right\rangle\) state after Doppler cooling via optical pumping by applying frequencies \({\nu }_{493}^{\mathrm c}\), \({\nu }_{493}^{\mathrm {op}}\), \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\), and \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm {sb}}\) (Fig. 1). Rotations of the qubit Bloch vector about \(\cos (\phi )\hat{x}+\sin (\phi )\hat{y}\) through angle θ, R(θ, ϕ), are accomplished by using microwave radiation near 9.925 GHz^{30} controlled by a modular digital synthesis platform^{31}. An example rotation of the form R(Ω_{R}t, 0) is shown in Fig. 2a, where the average population in state \(\left1\right\rangle\) found in 200 trials, measured with a technique described later, is plotted versus the duration of microwave radiation with Rabi frequency Ω_{R} = 2π × 57.03(3) kHz. The \(\left1\right\rangle\) state can be prepared after initialization into \(\left0\right\rangle\) by R(π, 0); however, we employ a composite pulse sequence, referred to as the CP Robust 180 sequence (attributed to E. Knill)^{32}, consisting of the five πpulses \(R(\pi ,\frac{\pi }{6})R(\pi ,0)R(\pi ,\frac{\pi }{2})R(\pi ,0)R(\pi ,\frac{\pi }{6})\). As shown in Fig. 2b, c, the broad flat features in both curves near zero detuning and θ = π demonstrate resiliency to both pulse area and detuning errors as compared to single πpulses, enabling robust daytoday operation.
Typically, for nuclear spin1/2 hyperfine qubits, singleshot state readout is accomplished via hyperfineselective optical cycling (\({\nu }_{493}^{\mathrm c}\) and \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\) in Fig. 1) and collection of any resulting fluorescence. The \(\vert0\rangle\) and \(\left1\right\rangle\) states are determined by threshold discrimination on the number of collected photons, as an atom in the \(\left1\right\rangle\) state scatters many photons, while an atom in the \(\left0\right\rangle\) state does not^{28,29}. Using this hyperfineselective optical cycling for SPAM, we measure the fraction of events in which an ion prepared in the \(\left0\right\rangle\) state was determined to be \(\left1\right\rangle\), \({\epsilon }_{\left0\right\rangle }=3.03(4)\times 1{0}^{2}\), and the fraction of experiments in which an ion prepared in the \(\left1\right\rangle\) state was determined to be \(\left0\right\rangle\), \({\epsilon }_{\left1\right\rangle }=8.65(9)\times 1{0}^{2}\). The average SPAM fidelity is defined as \({\mathcal{F}}=1\epsilon =1\frac{1}{2}({\epsilon }_{\vert 0 \rangle }+{\epsilon }_{\vert 1\rangle })=0.9415(5)\). The fidelity of this technique is limited by offresonant excitation to the \(\vert{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{1/2},F=1 \rangle\) manifold during readout, which can decay to either \(\left0\right\rangle\) or \(\left1\right\rangle\), thereby causing misidentification of the original qubit state^{28}. This readout fidelity could be improved with increased light collection efficiency^{12,33}.
Spectroscopy
For highfidelity SPAM, ^{133}Ba^{+} offers another path to state detection. The \(\left1\right\rangle\) qubit state can be shelved^{34} to the longlived (τ ≈ 30 s) metastable ^{2}D_{5/2} state via the ^{2}D_{5/2} ↔ ^{2}S_{1/2} transition, or optically pumped via the ^{2}P_{3/2} state (Fig. 1), followed by Doppler cooling for state readout. Projection into the \(\left0\right\rangle\) or \(\left1\right\rangle\) state is then determined by threshold discrimination on the number of collected photons, as an atom in the \(\left0\right\rangle\) state scatters many photons, while an atom in the ^{2}D_{5/2} state, indicating \(\left1\right\rangle\), does not. Offresonant scatter is negligible in this case as the Doppler cooling lasers are detuned by many THz from any ^{2}D_{5/2} state transitions.
In principle, shelving of the \(\left1\right\rangle\) qubit state is possible via the ^{2}D_{5/2} ↔ ^{2}S_{1/2} electric quadrupole transition near 1762 nm (ν_{1762}, currently unknown). However, as we demonstrate below, fast, highfidelity shelving of the \(\left1\right\rangle\) state can be achieved with optical pumping by application of the frequencies ν_{455}, ν_{585}, and \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\) (and ν_{614} for deshelving). Of these, only \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\) has been previously measured^{26}. To determine these unknown frequencies, we measure the ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}S_{1/2} and ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}D_{5/2} isotope shifts relative to ^{138}Ba^{+} (\(\delta {\nu }_{133,138}^{455}\) and \(\delta {\nu }_{133,138}^{614}\)) and hyperfine splittings Δ_{3} and Δ_{5} (Fig. 1). To measure Δ_{3} and \(\delta {\nu }_{133,138}^{455}\), the atom is prepared in the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=1\right\rangle\) manifold by optical pumping with \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\) and \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm {sb}}\) after Doppler cooling. A tunable laser near 455 nm (ν_{455}) is applied for 50 μs. When the frequency is near one of the two allowed transitions, excitation followed by spontaneous emission from the ^{2}P_{3/2} with branching ratios^{35} 0.74, 0.23, and 0.03 to the ^{2}S_{1/2}, ^{2}D_{5/2}, and ^{2}D_{3/2} states, respectively, optically pumps the ion to the ^{2}D_{5/2} state. The population remaining in the ^{2}S_{1/2} and ^{2}D_{3/2} states is then detected by collecting fluorescence while Doppler cooling and using threshold discrimination on the number of collected photons to decide if the atom was in the ^{2}D_{5/2} state. This sequence (see Supplementary Information) is repeated 200 times per laser frequency, and the average population is shown Fig. 3a as a function of frequency. From these data, we find Δ_{3} = 623(20) MHz, and \(\delta {\nu }_{133,138}^{455}\) = +358(28) MHz relative to ^{138}Ba^{+} .
To measure Δ_{5} and \(\delta {\nu }_{133,138}^{614}\), the atom is Doppler cooled and shelved to the ^{2}D_{5/2} state via one of the ^{2}P_{3/2} hyperfine manifolds. The \(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{5/2};F=2\right\rangle\) manifold is prepared via shelving on the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=1\right\rangle \leftrightarrow \left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=1\right\rangle\) transition, as dipole selection rules forbid decay to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{5/2};F=3\right\rangle\) state. Similarly, the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{5/2};F=3\right\rangle\) manifold is prepared by shelving on the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow \left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2},F=1\right\rangle\) transition, where 0.93 of decays to the ^{2}D_{5/2} are to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{5/2};F=3\right\rangle\) manifold. Next, a tunable laser near 614 nm is applied for 100 μs. When the frequency is near the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow \left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{5/2};F=3\right\rangle\) or \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow \left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{5/2};F=2\right\rangle\) transition, spontaneous emission from the ^{2}P_{3/2} state quickly deshelves the ion to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=1\right\rangle\) and ^{2}D_{3/2} states. This deshelved population is then detected via Doppler cooling. This sequence is repeated 200 times per laser frequency, and the average population is shown Fig. 3b as a function of frequency. From these data, we find the ^{2}D_{5/2} hyperfine splitting Δ_{5} = 83(20) MHz, and isotope shift \(\delta {\nu }_{133,138}^{614}\) = +216(28) MHz.
Highfidelity SPAM
With the required spectroscopy known, we can calculate the expected fidelity of optically pumped electron shelving detection of the hyperfine qubit as follows. For SPAM of the \(\left1\right\rangle\) state, the initial state is prepared as described above, followed by illumination with a laser resonant with the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow\)\(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=1\right\rangle\) transition (ν_{455}) at an intensity below saturation (Fig. 1 and Methods). After excitation of the atom, the ^{2}P_{3/2} state quickly (τ ≈ 10 ns) spontaneously decays to either the ^{2}S_{1/2}, ^{2}D_{5/2}, or ^{2}D_{3/2} state. Dipole selection rules forbid decay to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=0\right\rangle\) (\(\left0\right\rangle\)) state, resulting in \({\mathcal{F}}=0.88\) shelving fidelity, limited by population stranded in the ^{2}D_{3/2} states. To further increase the shelving fidelity, a 650 nm laser near resonant with the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{1/2};F=0\right\rangle \leftrightarrow\)\(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{3/2};F=1\right\rangle\) transition (\({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\)), and a laser near 585 nm (ν_{585}) resonant with the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow\)\(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle\) transition can be applied at an intensity below saturation. The hyperfine structure of ^{133}Ba^{+} allows for concurrent repumping of the ^{2}D_{3/2} states (ν_{585} and \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\)) with all polarization components during the application of ν_{455}, simplifying the shelving sequence (see Supplementary Information) compared with other species^{7}. Dipole selection rules forbid spontaneous emission to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=0\right\rangle\) (\(\left0\right\rangle\)) state resulting in a fidelity of \({\mathcal{F}}\approx 0.999\). This scheme is limited by offresonant scatter of ν_{455} to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=1\right\rangle\) state, where 0.44 of decays to the ^{2}S_{1/2} are to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=0\right\rangle\). If ν_{455} is linearly polarized parallel to the magnetic field direction (πlight), dipole selection rules forbid excitation from the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=1;{m}_{F}=0\right\rangle \leftrightarrow\)\(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=1;{m}_{F}=0\right\rangle\) for the first scattered photon, and the expected fidelity increases to \({\mathcal{F}}=0.9998\).
For SPAM of the \(\left0\right\rangle\) state, initialization with optical pumping proceeds as described above. After preparation, the \(\left1\right\rangle\) state is shelved as previously described, and the state is read out via Doppler cooling. During \(\left1\right\rangle\) state shelving, offresonant excitation to the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=1\right\rangle\) followed by spontaneous emission can shelve the ion to the ^{2}D_{5/2}state. This results in an expected SPAM fidelity of \({\mathcal{F}}=0.9998\).
To experimentally test these predictions, state preparation of each qubit state is applied to a single trapped ^{133}Ba^{+} ion and read out using the highest fidelity optically pumped shelving scheme (see Methods for experimental parameters). Before each SPAM attempt, the Doppler cooling fluorescence is monitored to determine if an SPAM attempt can be made. If the count rate does not reach a predetermined threshold of 2σ below the Doppler cooling mean count rate, chosen before the experiment begins and constant for all SPAM measurements, the subsequent SPAM attempt is not included and deshelving and Doppler cooling are repeated until the threshold is met. Each qubit state is attempted in blocks of 200 consecutive trials, followed by the other qubit state, for a combined total of 313,792 trials. The number of photons detected after each experiment is plotted in Fig. 4, and a threshold at n_{th} ≤ 12 photons maximally discriminates between \(\left0\right\rangle\) and \(\left1\right\rangle\) . The fraction of events in which an attempt to prepare the \(\left0\right\rangle\) state was measured to be \(\left1\right\rangle\) is \({\epsilon }_{\left0\right\rangle }=1.9(4)\times 1{0}^{4}\), while the fraction of experiments in which an attempt to prepare the \(\left1\right\rangle\) state was measured to be \(\left0\right\rangle\) is \({\epsilon }_{\left1\right\rangle }=3.8(5)\times 1{0}^{4}\). The average SPAM fidelity is \({\mathcal{F}}=1\frac{1}{2}({\epsilon }_{\left0\right\rangle }+{\epsilon }_{\left1\right\rangle })=0.99971(3)\).
Table 1 provides an error budget with estimates of the individual sources of error that comprise the observed infidelity. In addition to the previously discussed errors, we have experimentally determined several sources of infidelity. The CP Robust 180 sequence is found to have an error of ϵ = 9(1) × 10^{−5}, determined by measuring the \(\left1\right\rangle\) state SPAM infidelity as a function of the number of concatenated CP Robust 180 sequences. The state readout duration is determined by the need to statistically separate the \(\left0\right\rangle\) and \(\left1\right\rangle\) state photon distributions. Our limited numerical aperture requires detection for 4.5 ms, leading to an error due to spontaneous emission from the ^{2}D_{5/2} state of \(1\exp(\frac{4.5\times 1{0}^{3}}{30})\approx 1.5\times 1{0}^{4}\). This could be reduced with maximum likelihood methods^{36,37} or higher efficiency light collection^{33}. Finally, the readout of the ^{2}S_{1/2} manifold is limited by background gas collisions, characterized by the preparation and readout fidelities of the ^{2}S_{1/2} and ^{2}D_{5/2} manifolds in ^{138}Ba^{+}, for which we achieve \({\mathcal{F}}=0.99997(1)\).
It should be possible to further improve the fidelity to \({\mathcal{F}}\,>\,0.9999\). Errors due to \(\left0\right\rangle\) → \(\left1\right\rangle\) state transfer and spontaneous emission during readout could be reduced with higher fidelity population transfer and improved light collection efficiency^{7,33}. The shelving fidelity could be improved using a pulsed shelving scheme^{37}, or by addition of a 1762 nm transfer step before optical pumping (Fig. 1) in two ways. First, opticalfrequency qubit manipulations have been demonstrated (in other species) with a πpulse fidelity of \({\mathcal{F}}=0.99995\)^{4}, suggesting that highfidelity, unitary transfer to ^{2}D_{5/2} may be possible. Second, even without the narrowband laser used for coherent transfer on the electric quadrupole transition, a broadband 1762 nm laser could be used to saturate the transition to achieve 50% population transfer. Performing these operations to each of the ten available Zeeman sublevels will transfer the majority of the population to the ^{2}D_{5/2} state. If either method via 1762 nm is followed with the optically pumped shelving scheme, we expect a shelving infidelity below 10^{−6}.
Discussion
In summary, we report measurements in ^{133}Ba^{+} of the ^{2}P_{3/2} and ^{2}D_{5/2} hyperfine splittings and ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}S_{1/2} and ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}D_{5/2} transition frequencies, which are required for highfidelity state readout and optical qubit manipulations. Using these measurements, we have demonstrated operation of the ^{133}Ba^{+} hyperfine qubit, including use of the CP Robust 180 composite pulse sequence, to realize an average singleshot SPAM error of ϵ_{s} = 2.9(3) × 10^{−4} via threshold discrimination. This represents a ≈2× reduction of SPAM error for any qubit^{7}, and is sufficient for singleshot, projective readout of a register of ≈2000 individually resolved qubits.
Methods
We trap and laser cool ^{133}Ba^{+} ions as described in ref. ^{26}. ^{133}Ba^{+} ions are loaded into a linear Paul trap (ω_{sec} ≈ 2π × 100 kHz) by laser ablating an enriched BaCl_{2} salt (see Supplementary Notes) deposited on a platinum substrate. Laser cooling is accomplished using external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) near 493 and 650 nm detuned approximately half an atomic linewidth from the resonant transitions (\({\nu }_{493}^{\mathrm c}\) and \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\)) with saturation parameter s ≈ 10. Fiber electrooptic modulators (EOMs) are used to add repumping sidebands resonant with \({\nu }_{493}^{{\mathrm {sb}}}\), \({\nu }_{493}^{\mathrm {op}}\), and \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm {sb}}\) (Fig. 1). An applied magnetic field (B ≈ 5G) applied along a radial direction of the ion trap, with laser beams linearly polarized ≈45° from the magnetic field direction, are used to destabilize dark states that result from coherent population trapping (CPT)^{38}.
State preparation of the \(\left0\right\rangle\) state is accomplished by removing \({\nu }_{493}^{\mathrm {sb}}\) and adding \({\nu }_{493}^{\mathrm {op}}\) for 100 μs after Doppler cooling. The \(\left1\right\rangle\) state is prepared via the CP Robust 180 sequence with approximately 3 W of microwave power directed with a microwave horn for ≈15 μs.
Electron shelving is accomplished by simultaneously applying three lasers near 455, 585, and 650 nm for 300 μs. The ECDL laser near 455 nm tuned resonant with the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow\)\(\left{}^{2}{\text{S}}_{1/2};F=1\right\rangle\) transition (ν_{455}) is linearly polarized parallel to the magnetic field (πlight) with saturation parameter s ≈ 1 × 10^{−3}. The ECDL near 1171 nm frequency doubled using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide is tuned resonant with \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow\)\(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle\) transition (ν_{585}). The laser is linearly polarized ≈45° from the magnetic field direction with saturation parameter s ≈ 1 × 10^{−2}. The ECDL near 650 nm is tuned to the same parameters as Doppler cooling except for the reduction of saturation parameter to s ≈ 1. Deshelving of the ^{2}D_{5/2} manifold back to the cooling cycle is accomplished with an ECDL near 1228 nm frequency doubled with a PPLN waveguide and linearly polarized ≈45° from the magnetic field direction. The frequency is reddetuned approximately 40 MHz from the \(\left{}^{2}{\text{P}}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle \leftrightarrow\)\(\left{}^{2}{\text{D}}_{5/2};F=2\right\rangle\) transition and applied for 500 μs with saturation parameter s ≈ 1.
State detection is accomplished by collecting only 493 nm photons for 4.5 ms using a 0.28 NA commercial objective and photomultiplier tube with approximately 15% quantum efficiency. The 493 and 650 nm lasers have the same parameters as Doppler cooling during detection. The collection efficiency, laser parameters, ^{2}P_{1/2} branching ratio of approximately 3:1, and CPT of the lambda cooling system result in a 493 nm photon count rate of approximately 10 kHz. Background counts of approximately 150 Hz are dominated by 493 nm laser scatter from the 493 nm Doppler cooling beam.
To measure the ^{2}P_{3/2} hyperfine splitting and ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}S_{1/2} isotope shift, Doppler cooling followed by optical pumping with \({\nu }_{650}^{\mathrm c}\) and \({\nu }_{650}^{{\mathrm {sb}}}\) prepares the \(\left{S}_{1/2};F=1\right\rangle\) manifold. A laser near 455 nm (ν_{455}) is applied for 50 μs with saturation parameter s ≈ 1 × 10^{−3}. Doppler cooling then determines population in the ^{2}D_{5/2} states via fluorescence detection, followed by deshelving to reset the ion to the cooling cycle. The sequence is repeated 200 times per frequency, and the frequency scanned over the ^{2}P_{3/2} hyperfine splitting. All lasers are linearly polarized ≈45° from the magnetic field direction.
To measure the ^{2}D_{5/2} hyperfine splitting and ^{2}P_{3/2} ↔ ^{2}D_{5/2} isotope shift, the ^{2}D_{5/2} F = 3 or F = 2 manifold is prepared by Doppler cooling and applying ν_{455}. A laser near 614 nm (ν_{614}) is applied for 100 μs with saturation parameter s ≈ 1. Doppler cooling then determines population in the ^{2}D_{5/2} states via fluorescence detection, followed by deshelving to reset the ion to the cooling cycle. The sequence is repeated 200 times per frequency, and the frequency scanned between the \(\left{P}_{3/2};F=2\right\rangle\) and ^{2}D_{5/2} hyperfine splitting. All lasers are linearly polarized ≈45° from the magnetic field direction.
All lasers are stabilized via a software lock to a High Finesse WSU2 wavemeter^{39}. Reported hyperfine measurements (see Supplementary Information) include a systematic uncertainty of 20 MHz due to unresolved Zeeman structure. For isotope shifts, the relevant ^{133}Ba^{+} centroid frequency is determined from the hyperfine splitting measurements and then compared to measurements of the corresponding ^{138}Ba^{+} transition. All ^{133}Ba^{+} and ^{138}Ba^{+} measurements use the same experimental hardware and wavemeter. Reported isotope shifts include a 28 MHz systematic uncertainty due to wavemeter drift and unresolved Zeeman structure.
Data availability
Data are available upon request.
References
Steane, A. Quantum computing. Rep. Prog. Phys. 61, 117–173 (1998).
Preskill, J. FaultTolerant Quantum Computation. Introduction to Quantum computation and Information. 213–269 (1997).
Gottesman, D. An introduction to quantum error correction and faulttolerant quantum computation. Quantum Information Science and Its Contributions to Mathematics, Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics. 68, 13–58 (2010).
Gaebler, J. P. et al. Highfidelity universal gate set for ^{9} Be^{+} ion qubits. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 060505 (2016).
Hume, D. B., Rosenband, T. & Wineland, D. J. Highfidelity adaptive qubit detection through repetitive quantum nondemolition measurements. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120502 (2007).
Jeffrey, E. et al. Fast accurate state measurement with superconducting qubits. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 190504 (2014).
Harty, T. P. et al. Highfidelity preparation, gates, memory, and readout of a trappedion quantum bit. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 220501 (2014).
Ballance, C. J., Harty, T. P., Linke, N. M., Sepiol, M. A. & Lucas, D. M. Highfidelity quantum logic gates using trappedion hyperfine qubits. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 060504 (2016).
Bermudez, A. et al. Assessing the progress of trappedion processors towards faulttolerant quantum computation. Phys. Rev. X 7, 041061 (2017).
Erhard, A. et al. Characterizing largescale quantum computers via cycle benchmarking. Nat. Commun. 10, 5347 (2019).
Wu, T., Kumar, A., Giraldo, F. & Weiss, D. S. Sterngerlach detection of neutralatom qubits in a statedependent optical lattice. Nat. Phys. 15, 538–542 (2019).
Crain, Sea Highspeed lowcrosstalk detection of a 171yb+ qubit using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. Commun. Phys. 2, 97 (2019).
Fowler, A. G., Mariantoni, M., Martinis, J. M. & Cleland, A. N. Surface codes: towards practical largescale quantum computation. Phys. Rev. A 86, 032324 (2012).
Wright, K. et al. Benchmarking an 11qubit quantum computer. Nat. Commun. 10, 5464 (2019).
Friis, N. et al. Observation of entangled states of a fully controlled 20qubit system. Phys. Rev. X 8, 021012 (2018).
Debnath, S. et al. Demonstration of a small programmable quantum computer with atomic qubits. Nature 536, 63 (2016).
Preskill, J. Quantum computing in the NISQ era and beyond. Quantum 2, 79 (2018).
Nam, Y. et al. Groundstate energy estimation of the water molecule on a trapped ion quantum computer. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1902.10171 (2019).
Zhang, J. et al. Observation of a manybody dynamical phase transition with a 53qubit quantum simulator. Nature 543, 217 (2017).
Hempel, C. et al. Quantum chemistry calculations on a trappedion quantum simulator. Phys. Rev. X 8, 031022 (2018).
Gorman, D. J. et al. Engineering vibrationally assisted energy transfer in a trappedion quantum simulator. Phys. Rev. X 8, 011038 (2018).
Landsman, K. A. et al. Verified quantum information scrambling. Nature 567, 61–65 (2019).
Hucul, D. et al. Modular entanglement of atomic qubits using photons and phonons. Nat. Phys. 11, 37 (2015).
Kokail, C. et al. Selfverifying variational quantum simulation of lattice models. Nature 569, 355–360 (2019).
Shen, C. & Duan, L.M. Correcting detection errors in quantum state engineering through data processing. N. J. Phys. 14, 053053 (2012).
Hucul, D., Christensen, J. E., Hudson, E. R. & Campbell, W. C. Spectroscopy of a synthetic trapped ion qubit. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 100501 (2017).
Wang, Y. et al. Singlequbit quantum memory exceeding tenminute coherence time. Nat. Photon. 11, 646–650 (2017).
Olmschenk, S. et al. Manipulation and detection of a trapped yb^{+} hyperfine qubit. Phys. Rev. A 76, 052314 (2007).
Acton, M. et al. Nearperfect simultaneous measurement of a qubit register. Quantum Inf. Comp. 6, 465 (2006).
Knab, H., Schupp, M. & Werth, G. Precision spectroscopy on trapped radioactive ions: groundstate hyperfine splittings of ^{133} ba^{+} and ^{131} ba^{+}. Europhys. Lett. 4, 1361 (1987).
Pruttivarasin, T. & Katori, H. Compact field programmable gate arraybased pulsesequencer and radiofrequency generator for experiments with trapped atoms. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 115106 (2015).
Ryan, C. A., Hodges, J. S. & Cory, D. G. Robust decoupling techniques to extend quantum coherence in diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200402 (2010).
Noek, R. et al. High speed, high fidelity detection of an atomic hyperfine qubit. Opt. Lett. 38, 4735–4738 (2013).
Dehmelt, H. G. Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 60 (1975).
Dutta, T., De Munshi, D., Yum, D., Rebhi, R. & Mukherjee, M. An exacting transition probability measurement—a direct test of atomic manybody theories. Sci. Rep. 6, 29772 (2016).
Langer, C. HighFidelity Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder (2006).
Myerson, A. H. et al. Highfidelity readout of trappedion qubits. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 200502 (2008).
Berkeland, D. J. & Boshier, M. G. Destabilization of dark states and optical spectroscopy in zeemandegenerate atomic systems. Phys. Rev. A 65, 033413 (2002).
High Finesse. WS Ultimate 2 User Manual (High Finesse, 2014).
Höhle, C., Hühnermann, H., Meier, T., Ihle, H. & Wagner, R. Nuclear moments and optical isotope shift of radioactive 133ba. Phys. Lett. B 62, 390–392 (1976).
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the US Army Research Office under award W911NF1810097. We thank Anthony Ransford, Christian Schneider, Conrad Roman and Paul Hamilton for helpful discussions. We thank Peter Yu for technical assistance. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the AFRL.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
J.E.C. and D.H. conducted the experiment. J.E.C., D.H., W.C.C., and E.R.H. analyzed the results. All authors reviewed the manuscript.
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The authors declare no competing interests.
Additional information
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supplementary information
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Christensen, J.E., Hucul, D., Campbell, W.C. et al. Highfidelity manipulation of a qubit enabled by a manufactured nucleus. npj Quantum Inf 6, 35 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s4153402002655
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s4153402002655
This article is cited by

Entangling gates for trappedion quantum computation and quantum simulation
Journal of the Korean Physical Society (2023)

Resonant and nonresonant optimizations by multiconstraint quantum control theory in molecular rotational states
Scientific Reports (2022)

Realizing coherently convertible dualtype qubits with the same ion species
Nature Physics (2022)

Optimization twoqubit quantum gate by two optical control methods in molecular pendular states
Scientific Reports (2022)

Demonstration of the trappedion quantum CCD computer architecture
Nature (2021)