a, The population of the S state, pS, as a function of the exposure time of the ion to the blue sideband laser excitation. The blue line is a fit using equation (9) with reduced χ2 = 0.7. b, Distribution of occupation, pn, of the different levels of the harmonic oscillator mode after Nc = 8 cycles. The distribution obtained from numerical calculation (empty bars) is compared to the one obtained by the fit to the experimental data (shaded bars). The error bars are depicted in red in both a,b. In a, the error bars are all identical and based on a single measurement of the phase error, estimated from >150 replicates to be ~0.1. In b, the reduced χ2 is calculated as for Fig. 3 and depends on the number of data points in a given fit, ranging from 25 to 200. The phase error is the same as in a, and all error bars in a,b represent one sigma standard deviation.