Table 6 Diagnostic value of assessing breathing and auscultation in a setting with high prevalence of pneumonia

From: Diagnostic value of signs, symptoms and diagnostic tests for diagnosing pneumonia in ambulant children in developed countries: a systematic review

Index test Study nr. Pneumonia prevalence Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV
Cough 1 34% 78.5 30.2 37.2 72.7
3 35.7% 88 16 36.8 70.6
Decreased breath sounds 9 18% 24 83 23.7 83.3
7 20% 9 6 2 20
3 35.7% 54 55 40,0 68,3
10 72% 46,1 76,7 83,4 36,0
Wheezing 12 14.4% 6 71 3 82
3 35.7% 56,0 93 81,7 79,2
10 72% 3,9 90 49,7 27,00
Crackles 9 18% 24 75 17,4 81,8
3 35.7% 43 73 47.0 69.7
10 72% 36.8 60 70.0 27.3
Chest retractions 6.2 14% 56.9 83.4 35.5 92.4
6.1 16% 28.2 81.5 21.8 86.1
3 35.7% 5 98 58.2 65.0
Rhonchi 12 14.4% 78 73 15 86
10 72% 2.6 80 24.8 24.5
Rales 12 14.4% 57 75 27 90
7 20% 23 15 7 48
Bronchial breathing 3 35.7% 7 96 49.3 65
10 72% 17.1 93.3 86.6 30.8
Oxygen saturation <94% 6.2 14% 32.8 92.3 40.4 89.5
6.1 16% 14.1 96.0 39.3 85.9
  1. PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value