Table 3 Characteristics of selected articles reporting on ultrasonography

From: Diagnostic value of signs, symptoms and diagnostic tests for diagnosing pneumonia in ambulant children in developed countries: a systematic review

Nr. Author Setting % with pneumonia Age range Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Index test Reference standard
9 Shah et al.34 ED, US 18% 0–21 years Clinically suspect of pneumonia, requiring CXR Hemodynamic instability Ultrasound CXR
10 Urbankowska et al.31 Dept. ped. pulmonology & allergy, Poland 72% >1 month Fever >38.0 °C, dyspnea, cough, and abnormal long auscultation Hospital-acquired pneumonia, persistent abnormalities on former CXR, treated for pneumonia in the past 4 weeks Ultrasound CXR
14 Copetti and Cattarossi42 ED, Italy 67% 6 months–16 years Clinical signs suggesting pneumonia   Ultrasound CXR
15 Ianniello et al.43 ED, Italy 56% 3–16 years Suspect of pneumonia with fever >38.0 °C for >3 days and cough   Ultrasound CXR
16 Samson et al.44 ED, Spain 42.5% 0–15 years Suspicion of CAP, performance of CXR Known pneumonia on arrival to ED, clinical bronchiolitis, previous antibiotic treatment for this episode, chronic chest diseases Ultrasound CXR
17 Zhan et al.41 Pediatric department, Denmark 50% 0–15 years Suspicion of pneumonia with cough, fever ≥38.5 °C, elevated respiratory rate, grunting, nasal flaring, or chest recessions or pulse oximetry <95% Ultrasound not completed within 24 h after inclusion Ultrasound CXR
  1. ED emergency department, CXR chest X-ray, CAP community-acquired pneumonia