Table 2 Characteristics of selected articles reporting on laboratory tests

From: Diagnostic value of signs, symptoms and diagnostic tests for diagnosing pneumonia in ambulant children in developed countries: a systematic review

Nr. Author Setting % with pneumonia Age range Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Index test Reference standard
5 Nijman et al.39 ED, the Netherlands 6.7% 1 month–15 years Fever noted in 24 h before presentation or ≥38.0 °C at ED Chronic comorbidity, received antibiotics in the past week Signs and symptoms, CRP CXR, 1-week follow-up
6.1 Oostenbrink et al.35 ED, the Netherlands 16% 1 month–16 years Rectal temperature ≥38.0 °C and cough Immunodeficiency, multiple handicaps, pre-existing pulmonary disease Signs, symptoms, vital signs, WBC, CRP Composite: CXR, or follow-up, or review of records
6.2 Oostenbrink et al.35 ED, UK 14% 1 month–16 years Axillary temperature ≥38.0 °C and lower respiratory tract infection signs Immunodeficiency Signs, symptoms, vital signs, WBC, CRP Composite: CXR, or follow-up, or review of records
6.3 Oostenbrink et al.35 ED, UK 3.7% 1 month–16 years Fever reported or measured rectally ≥38.5 °C and acute breathing difficulty Immunodeficiency, multiple handicaps, admitted for resuscitation Signs, symptoms, vital signs, WBC, CRP Composite: CXR, or follow-up, or review of records
10 Urbankowska et al.31 Department of pediatric pulmonology and allergy, Poland 72% >1 month Fever >38.0 °C, dyspnea, cough, and abnormal long auscultation Hospital-acquired pneumonia, persistent abnormalities on former CXR, treated for pneumonia in the past 4 weeks CRP, WBC CXR
13 Irwin et al.40 ED, UK 9.8% <16 years Fever, requiring blood tests Immunodeficiency CRP, WBC, PCT, resistin, NGAL CXR
  1. ED emergency department, CXR chest X-ray, WBC white blood cell count, CRP C-reactive protein, PCT procalcitonin, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin