Table 2 Considerations for COPD interventions in women

From: Call to action: improving primary care for women with COPD

Intervention Special considerations in women
Smoking cessation • Women often find it more difficult to quit smoking than men and may need a different behavioral and pharmacological approach47
Vaccinations • As appropriate, for the prevention/treatment of exacerbations (e.g. influenza vaccine)
Pharmacological treatments • National and international guidelines should be followed
  • Care should be taken to ensure that the treatment administered does not worsen common comorbidities, and to be aware that some medications used to treat comorbidities may have a beneficial effect in COPD as well
Pulmonary rehabilitation • Focus on common symptoms in women, e.g. breathlessness, anxiety/depression
Oxygen therapy • As appropriate, for chronic respiratory failure