Table 1 Demographics of PD cases and controls

From: The Parkinson’s phenome—traits associated with Parkinson’s disease in a broadly phenotyped cohort

  Cases Controls P
   N   N  
Age, mean (SD), years 69.8 (11.2) 13,196 69.3 (11.4) 131,960 3.10 × 10−6
Female, no. (%) 5,126 (38.8%) 13,196 51,260 (38.8%) 131,960 1
Education level, no. (%)      2.27 × 10−5
 Less than high school 93 (1.1%) 8,159 1,537 (1.2%) 130,544  
 High school diploma 697 (8.5%) 8,159 12,198 (9.3%) 130,544  
 Associate’s degree/vocational degree/some college 1,954 (23.9%) 8,159 33,909 (26.0%) 130,544  
 Bachelor’s degree 2,391 (29.3%) 8,159 36,276 (27.8%) 130,544  
 Master’s/professional degree 2,475 (30.3%) 8,159 37,830 (29.0%) 130,544  
 Doctorate degree 549 (6.7%) 8,159 8794 (6.7%) 130,544  
Income indexa, median (IQR), US dollars $66,486 ($36,937) 6,872 $66,489 ($37,023) 109,952 3.06 × 10−1
Body mass index, median (IQR), kg/m2 25.8 (6.1) 10,584 26.6 (6.1) 148,176 8.31 × 10−81
Tobacco use, no. (%) 4,085 (38.4%) 10,630 64,719 (46.8%) 138,190 1.21 × 10−63
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, N total number of individuals in a cohort
  2. aEach individual was assigned an income index value equal to the median household income in the past 12 months in his or her self-reported zip code using data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s most recent (2016) American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates