Fig. 3 | npj Flexible Electronics

Fig. 3

From: Flexible quantum dot light-emitting diodes for next-generation displays

Fig. 3

Device structure and operation principles of QLEDs. a Representative device structure of quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). b Energy diagram of a typical QLED showing charge injections from the anode and cathode. c Four representative device types of QLEDs according to the type of charge transport layer (CTL): (i) organic polymer CTL, (ii) all-organic CTL (e.g., TPD and TPBi), (iii) all inorganic CTL (e.g., n-type and p-type GaN), and (iv) organic (e.g., TFB)–inorganic (e.g., ZnO) CTL. d, e Progress in the performance of QLEDs in terms of peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) (d) and maximum brightness (e). The data are categorized according to the type of CTL (From type (i) to (iv) in c). Data for d are taken from references. (i) organic single CTLs: 76, 77, 78, 110, (ii) all-organic CTLs: 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, (iii) all-inorganic CTLs: 85, 86, 88, (iv) hybrid CTLs: 52, 89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96. Data for panel e are taken from references: (i) organic single CTLs: 76, 77, and 110, (ii) all-organic CTLs: 79, 80, 82, and 83, (iii) all-inorganic CTLs: 86, (iv) hybrid CTLs: 48, 52, 89, 92, 93, 94, and 98

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