Fig. 5: Study design overview and assumptions of the Mendelian randomization framework. | npj Genomic Medicine

Fig. 5: Study design overview and assumptions of the Mendelian randomization framework.

From: Gallstone disease, diabetes, calcium, triglycerides, smoking and alcohol consumption and pancreatitis risk: Mendelian randomization study

Fig. 5

IVW inverse-variance weighted, LD linkage disequilibrium, SNPs single-nucleotide polymorphisms, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus. Assumption 1 indicates that the genetic variants proposed as instrumental variables should be robustly associated with the risk factor of interest; assumption 2 indicates that the used genetic variants should not be associated with potential confounders, and assumption 3 indicates that the selected genetic variants should affect the risk of the outcome merely through the risk factor, not via alternative pathways.

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