Table 1 Characteristics of the individuals in the Obese Twins cohort overall and by obesity status, stratified by race

From: Gut microbiota phenotypes of obesity

  All White Black
Non-obese Obese p-value Non-obese Obese p-value
Number of individuals 152 34 41   15 62  
Number of samples 270 62 71   21 116  
Age 34.0 (12.2) 32.7 (11.7) 35.9 (13.2) 0.266 37.7 (14.6) 32.6 (11.1) 0.136
Hispanic ethnicity     0.695    0.092
 No 134 (88.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   11 (73.3) 55 (88.7)  
 Yes 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (6.7) 0 (0.0)  
 Unknown 17 (11.2) 4 (11.8) 3 (7.3)   7 (11.3) 3 (7.3) 0.736
Average BMI 34.8 (10.4) 22.8 (2.8) 39.2 (5.9) <0.001 24.3 (3.5) 41.1 (8.7) <0.001
BMI category     <0.001    <0.001
 Lean 34 (22.4) 26 (76.5) 0 (0.0)   8 (53.3) 0 (0.0)  
 Overweight 15 (9.9) 8 (23.5) 0 (0.0)   7 (46.7) 0 (0.0)  
Obese (Total) 103 (67.8) 0 (0.0) 41 (100.0)   0 (0.0) 62 (100.0)  
 Obese category I (30 < BMI < 35) 24 (15.8) 0 (0.0) 11 (26.8)   0 (0.0) 13 (21.0)  
 Obese category II (35 < BMI < 40) 33 (21.7) 0 (0.0) 13 (31.7)   0 (0.0) 20 (32.3)  
 Obese category III + (BMI > 40) 46 (30.3) 0 (0.0) 17 (41.5)   0 (0.0) 29 (46.8)  
Twin (versus mother of twin) 106 (69.7) 26 (76.5) 26 (63.4) 0.332 8 (53.3) 46 (74.2) 0.204
Monozygotic twin 60 (56.6) 17 (65.4) 13 (50.0) 0.4 7 (87.5) 23 (50.0) 0.113
Smoking status        
Smoker 39 (25.7) 8 (23.5) 13 (31.7) 0.392 2 (13.3) 16 (25.8) 0.353
Non-smoker 107 (70.4) 23 (67.6) 27 (65.9)   12 (80.0) 45 (72.6)  
Unknown 6 (3.9) 3 (8.8) 1 (2.4)   1 (6.7) 1 (1.6)  
Diet
Non-missing dietary information 144 (94.7) 31 (91.2) 38 (92.7) >0.99 14 (93.3) 61 (98.4) 0.842
Kilocalories 1489 (665.8) 1171 (479.5) 1567 (604.1) 0.004 1291 (548.3) 1647 (748.9) 0.098
Protein (%) 15.0 (3.4) 15.8 (3.3) 15.4 (2.0) 0.614 15.4 (4.3) 14.30 (3.45) 0.305
Meat servings 1.8 (1.1) 1.2 (0.6) 1.8 (0.8) 0.001 1.4 (0.9) 2.1 (1.3) 0.055
Fat (%) 38.7 (6.9) 38.4 (8.3) 41.1 (7.1) 0.154 35.3 (6.3) 38.2 (5.7) 0.09
Saturated fat (%) 0.1 (0.03) 0.14 (0.03) 0.14 (0.03) 0.224 0.12 (0.03) 0.12 (0.02) 0.412
Carbohydrates (%) 46.4 (8.6) 43.4 (9.3) 43.8 (7.9) 0.836 51.6 (9.0) 48.3 (7.5) 0.163
Sweets (%) 14.2 (9.8) 11.6 (9.2) 14.4 (9.8) 0.236 11.7 (9.9) 16 (9.9) 0.145
Fiber (%) 0.03 (0.02) 0.03 (0.02) 0.03 (0.01) 0.66 0.05 (0.02) 0.03 (0.01) <0.001
 Fiber from grains (%) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) 0.363 0.01 (0.01) 0.01 (0.00) 0.814
 Fiber from vegetables (%) 0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 0.921 0.03 (0.03) 0.02 (0.01) 0.001
Alpha diversity (mean of samples)
Observed species 275.6 (39.9) 283 (28.9) 274 (42.1) 0.318 249.7 (39.8) 278.7 (41.8) 0.021
Shannon diversity index 6.7 (0.5) 6.8 (0.4) 6.7 (0.5) 0.442 6.3 (0.6) 6.7 (0.6) 0.035
Faith’s PD 3.2 (0.7) 3.3 (0.6) 3.2 (0.8) 0.367 2.9 (0.5) 3.2 (0.8) 0.161