Fig. 2 | npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease

Fig. 2

From: How does hormesis impact biology, toxicology, and medicine?

Fig. 2

Responses to hormetic challenges are coordinated across multiple organ systems, and involve both cell autonomous molecular mechanisms, and signals transmitted between different tissues. Exercise and fasting impose bioenergetic challenges to multiple organ systems, with responses of muscle, nerve cell networks, liver, and adipose cells being particularly important during the exercise. A major source of exposures to potentially toxic agents is their ingestion as components of food and water, or as man-made drugs. Numerous signaling molecules are released into the blood in response to environmental challenges, and function to coordinate hormetic responses of various organ systems. The brain plays major roles in adaptive responses to a wide range of hormetic exposures, mediating both immediate responses, and enduring changes in synaptic connectivity, and learning and memory, that optimize performance under challenging environmental conditions. (for in-depth discussion see refs. 36, 41, 77). Images for Digestive Tract and Capillaries from Wikimedia Commons under the Creative Commons copyright (CC-BY-SA) 2.5 license, other images in Fig. 2 were created by author M Mattson and have not been previously published

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