The arrangement of centromeres within the nucleus differs among species and cell types. However, neither the mechanisms determining centromere distribution nor its biological significance are currently well understood. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of centromere distribution for the maintenance of genome integrity through the cytogenic and molecular analysis of mutants defective in centromere distribution. We propose a two-step regulatory mechanism that shapes the non-Rabl-like centromere distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana through condensin II and the linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. Condensin II is enriched at centromeres and, in cooperation with the LINC complex, induces the scattering of centromeres around the nuclear periphery during late anaphase/telophase. After entering interphase, the positions of the scattered centromeres are then stabilized by nuclear lamina proteins of the CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) family. We also found that, despite their strong impact on centromere distribution, condensin II and CRWN proteins have little effect on chromatin organization involved in the control of gene expression, indicating a robustness of chromatin organization regardless of the type of centromere distribution.
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The microarray data (GEO ID: GSE179466) are available on the GEO website (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). The Hi-C (DRA013016), RNA-seq (DRA014243), BS-seq (DRA014250) data are available on the DDBJ website (https://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/index-e.html). We used a modified version of Araport11 downloaded from https://plants.ensembl.org for RNA-seq data analysis and a TAIR10 genome downloaded from https://www.arabidopsis.org/index.jsp for Hi-C and BS-seq data analysis. Source data are provided with this paper.
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We thank S. Mibu, Y. Asako (Tokyo University of Science, Japan) and Y. Inui (University of Tokyo, Japan) for substantial technical assistance. This research was supported by grants from Takeda Science Foundation and Tokyo University of Science Grant for International Joint Research to T. Sakamoto, grant from Chube Ito Foundation and MXT/JSPS KAKENHI (21K06247) to Y.S., grants from MXT/JSPS KAKENHI (26291067, 15H05955, 15H05962, 15K21750, 19H03259, 20H05911, 20H03297 and 22H00415) and JST CREST (grant number JPMJCR20S6) to S.M., as well as the University of Zurich and a grant from the European Research Council (ERC AdG number 243996) to U.G.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Nature Plants thanks Katja Graumann, Chang Liu, Frederic Pontvianne and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Supplementary Figs. 1–12.
Supplementary Tables 1–3.
Microarray data for Col-0, cap-h2-2 and crwn1/4 grown under normal conditions.
RNA-seq data for Col-0, cap-h2-2, crwn1/4, and cap-h2-2 crwn1/4 treated with zeocin for 0, 3 and 48 h.
Enriched GO terms in the DEGs of cap-h2-2 crwn1/4 treated with zeocin.
Statistical source data for supplementary figures.
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Sakamoto, T., Sakamoto, Y., Grob, S. et al. Two-step regulation of centromere distribution by condensin II and the nuclear envelope proteins. Nat. Plants 8, 940–953 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-022-01200-3