Development of plant organs is a highly organized process. In Arabidopsis, proper root development requires that distinct cell types and tissue layers are specified and formed in a restricted manner in space and over time. Despite its importance, genetic controls underlying such regularity remain elusive. Here we found that WIP genes expressed in the embryo and suspensor functionally oppose those expressed in the surrounding maternal tissues to orchestrate cell division orientation and cell fate specification in the embryonic root, thereby promoting regular root formation. The maternal WIPs act non-cell autonomously to repress root cell fate specification through SIMILAR TO RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH ONE (SRO) family members. When losing all WIPs, root cells divide irregularly in the early embryo, but this barely alters their fate specification and the morphology of post-embryonic roots. Our results reveal cross-communication between the embryonic and maternal WIPs in controlling root development.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 per month
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 digital issues and online access to articles
$119.00 per year
only $9.92 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Get just this article for as long as you need it
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
The RNA-seq data of wild-type and wip123456 primary root meristems have been deposited to Sequence Read Archive (PRJNA774717). All data supporting the findings of this study are available in this Article and its Supplementary Information, or from A. Bendahmane upon reasonable request. Source data are provided with this paper.
Scheres, B. & Benfey, P. N. Asymmetric cell division in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 50, 505–537 (1999).
Abrash, E. B. & Bergmann, D. C. Asymmetric cell divisions: a view from plant development. Dev. Cell 16, 783–796 (2009).
De Smet, I. & Beeckman, T. Asymmetric cell division in land plants and algae: the driving force for differentiation. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 12, 177–188 (2011).
Petricka, J. J., Van Norman, J. M. & Benfey, P. N. Symmetry breaking in plants: molecular mechanisms regulating asymmetric cell divisions in Arabidopsis. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 1, a000497 (2009).
Pillitteri, L. J., Guo, X. & Dong, J. Asymmetric cell division in plants: mechanisms of symmetry breaking and cell fate determination. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 73, 4213–4229 (2016).
Heidstra, R. Asymmetric cell division in plant development. Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol. 45, 1–37 (2007).
Scheres, B. et al. Embryonic origin of the Arabidopsis primary root and root meristem initials. Development 120, 2475–2487 (1994).
Capron, A., Chatfield, S., Provart, N. & Berleth, T. Embryogenesis: pattern formation from a single cell. Arabidopsis Book 7, e0126 (2009).
Jenik, P. D., Gillmor, C. S. & Lukowitz, W. Embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 23, 207–236 (2007).
Lau, S., Slane, D., Herud, O., Kong, J. & Jurgens, G. Early embryogenesis in flowering plants: setting up the basic body pattern. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 63, 483–506 (2012).
ten Hove, C. A., Lu, K. J. & Weijers, D. Building a plant: cell fate specification in the early Arabidopsis embryo. Development 142, 420–430 (2015).
Palovaara, J., de Zeeuw, T. & Weijers, D. Tissue and organ initiation in the plant embryo: a first time for everything. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 32, 47–75 (2016).
Crawford, B. C. W. et al. Genetic control of distal stem cell fate within root and embryonic meristems. Science 347, 655–659 (2015).
Jones, V. A. & Dolan, L. MpWIP regulates air pore complex development in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Development 144, 1472–1476 (2017).
Englbrecht, C. C., Schoof, H. & Bohm, S. Conservation, diversification and expansion of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. BMC Genomics 5, 39 (2004).
Marsch-Martinez, N. et al. The NTT transcription factor promotes replum development in Arabidopsis fruits. Plant J. 80, 69–81 (2014).
Crawford, B. C. W., Ditta, G. & Yanofsky, M. F. The NTT gene is required for transmitting-tract development in carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. Curr. Biol. 17, 1101–1108 (2007).
Petricka, J. J., Clay, N. K. & Nelson, T. M. Vein patterning screens and the defectively organized tributaries mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 56, 251–263 (2008).
Martin, A. et al. A transposon-induced epigenetic change leads to sex determination in melon. Nature 461, 1135–1138 (2009).
Sagasser, M., Lu, G. H., Hahlbrock, K. & Weisshaar, B. A. thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 1 is involved in seed coat development and defines the WIP subfamily of plant zinc finger proteins. Genes Dev. 16, 138–149 (2002).
Coen, O. et al. A TRANSPARENT TESTA transcriptional module regulates endothelium polarity. Front. Plant Sci. 10, 1801 (2019).
Appelhagen, I. et al. Weird fingers: functional analysis of WIP domain proteins. FEBS Lett. 584, 3116–3122 (2010).
Roldan, M. V. G. et al. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals the role of WIP proteins in inhibition of growth and development. Commun. Biol. 3, 239 (2020).
Appelhagen, I. et al. TRANSPARENT TESTA1 interacts with R2R3-MYB factors and affects early and late steps of flavonoid biosynthesis in the endothelium of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Plant J. 67, 406–419 (2011).
Wieschaus, E. Positional information and cell fate determination in the early Drosophila embryo. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 117, 567–579 (2016).
Lynch, J. A. Evolution of maternal control of axial patterning in insects. Curr. Opin. Insect Sci. 31, 37–42 (2019).
Kölle, S., Hughes, B. & Steele, H. Early embryo-maternal communication in the oviduct: a review. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 87, 650–662 (2020).
Fazeli, A. Maternal communication with gametes and embryos. Theriogenology 70, 1182–1187 (2008).
Idelevich, A. & Vilella, F. Mother and embryo cross-communication. Genes https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040376 (2020).
Ray, S., Golden, T. & Ray, A. Maternal effects of the short integument mutation on embryo development in Arabidopsis. Dev. Biol. 180, 365–369 (1996).
Costa, L. M. et al. Central cell-derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants. Science 344, 168–172 (2014).
Prigge, M. J. & Wagner, D. R. The Arabidopsis serrate gene encodes a zinc-finger protein required for normal shoot development. Plant Cell 13, 1263–1279 (2001).
Ottenschlager, I. et al. Gravity-regulated differential auxin transport from columella to lateral root cap cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci USA 100, 2987–2991 (2003).
Friml, J. et al. Efflux-dependent auxin gradients establish the apical-basal axis of Arabidopsis. Nature 426, 147–153 (2003).
Sarkar, A. K. et al. Conserved factors regulate signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and root stem cell organizers. Nature 446, 811–814 (2007).
Willemsen, V. et al. The NAC domain transcription factors FEZ and SOMBRERO control the orientation of cell division plane in Arabidopsis root stem cells. Dev. Cell 15, 913–922 (2008).
Petricka, J. J., Winter, C. M. & Benfey, P. N. Control of Arabidopsis root development. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 63, 563–590 (2012).
Scheres, B. Stem-cell niches: nursery rhymes across kingdoms. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 345–354 (2007).
Craft, J. et al. New pOp/LhG4 vectors for stringent glucocorticoid-dependent transgene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 41, 899–918 (2005).
Belles-Boix, E., Babiychuk, E., Van Montagu, M., Inze, D. & Kushnir, S. CEO1, a new protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, protects yeast against oxidative damage. FEBS Lett. 482, 19–24 (2000).
Jaspers, P. et al. Unequally redundant RCD1 and SRO1 mediate stress and developmental responses and interact with transcription factors. Plant J. 60, 268–279 (2009).
Teotia, S. & Lamb, R. S. The paralogous genes RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and SIMILAR TO RCD ONE1 have partially redundant functions during Arabidopsis development. Plant Physiol. 151, 180–198 (2009).
Teotia, S. & Lamb, R. S. RCD1 and SRO1 are necessary to maintain meristematic fate in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Exp. Bot. 62, 1271–1284 (2011).
Christensen, L. F. & Staby, L. Evolutionary conservation of the intrinsic disorder-based Radical-Induced Cell Death1 hub interactome. Sci. Rep. 9, 18927 (2019).
Jaspers, P. et al. The RST and PARP-like domain containing SRO protein family: analysis of protein structure, function and conservation in land plants. BMC Genomics 11, 170 (2010).
Aravind, L. The WWE domain: a common interaction module in protein ubiquitination and ADP ribosylation. Trends Biochem. Sci. 26, 273–275 (2001).
Rissel, D. & Peiter, E. Poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerases in plants and their human counterparts: parallels and peculiarities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071638 (2019).
Wirthmueller, L. et al. Arabidopsis downy mildew effector HaRxL106 suppresses plant immunity by binding to RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1. New Phytol. 220, 232–248 (2018).
Bugge, K. et al. Structure of radical-induced cell death1 hub domain reveals a common αα-scaffold for disorder in transcriptional networks. Structure 26, 734–746.e7 (2018).
Stadler, R., Lauterbach, C. & Sauer, N. Cell-to-cell movement of green fluorescent protein reveals post-phloem transport in the outer integument and identifies symplastic domains in Arabidopsis seeds and embryos. Plant Physiol. 139, 701–712 (2005).
Kawashima, T. & Goldberg, R. B. The suspensor: not just suspending the embryo. Trends Plant Sci. 15, 23–30 (2010).
Yeung, E. C. Embryogeny of Phaseolus: the role of the suspensor. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 96, 17–28 (1980).
Schulz, P. & Jensen, W. A. Capsella embryogenesis: the suspensor and the basal cell. Protoplasma 67, 139–163 (1969).
Robert, H. S. et al. Maternal auxin supply contributes to early embryo patterning in Arabidopsis. Nat. Plants 4, 548–553 (2018).
Nagl, W. Translocation of putrescine in the ovule, suspensor and embryo of Phaseolus coccineus. J. Plant Physiol. 136, 587–591 (1990).
Ahlfors, R. et al. Arabidopsis RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 belongs to the WWE protein-protein interaction domain protein family and modulates abscisic acid, ethylene, and methyl jasmonate responses. Plant Cell 16, 1925–1937 (2004).
Brosche, M. et al. Transcriptomics and functional genomics of ROS-induced cell death regulation by RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1. PLoS Genet. 10, e1004112 (2014).
Potters, G., Pasternak, T. P., Guisez, Y. & Jansen, M. A. Different stresses, similar morphogenic responses: integrating a plethora of pathways. Plant Cell Environ. 32, 158–169 (2009).
Blomster, T. et al. Apoplastic reactive oxygen species transiently decrease auxin signaling and cause stress-induced morphogenic response in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 157, 1866–1883 (2011).
Karimi, M., De Meyer, B. & Hilson, P. Modular cloning in plant cells. Trends Plant Sci. 10, 103–105 (2005).
Blilou, I. et al. The PIN auxin efflux facilitator network controls growth and patterning in Arabidopsis roots. Nature 433, 39–44 (2005).
Siligato, R. et al. MultiSite gateway-compatible cell type-specific gene-inducible system for plants. Plant Physiol. 170, 627–641 (2016).
Clough, S. J. & Bent, A. F. Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 16, 735–743 (1998).
Musielak, T. J., Schenkel, L., Kolb, M., Henschen, A. & Bayer, M. A simple and versatile cell wall staining protocol to study plant reproduction. Plant Reprod. 28, 161–169 (2015).
Bougourd, S., Marrison, J. & Haseloff, J. Technical advance: an aniline blue staining procedure for confocal microscopy and 3D imaging of normal and perturbed cellular phenotypes in mature Arabidopsis embryos. Plant J. 24, 543–550 (2000).
Zhou, X., Shi, C., Zhao, P. & Sun, M. Isolation of living apical and basal cell lineages of early proembryos for transcriptome analysis. Plant Reprod. 32, 105–111 (2019).
Figueiredo, D. D., Batista, R. A., Roszak, P. J., Hennig, L. & Kohler, C. Auxin production in the endosperm drives seed coat development in Arabidopsis. eLife https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20542 (2016).
Truernit, E. et al. High-resolution whole-mount imaging of three-dimensional tissue organization and gene expression enables the study of phloem development and structure in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 20, 1494–1503 (2008).
Molder, F. et al. Sustainable data analysis with Snakemake. F1000Research 10, 33 (2021).
Gietz, R. D. & Woods, R. A. Yeast transformation by the LiAc/SS carrier DNA/PEG method. Methods Mol. Biol. 313, 107–120 (2006).
We thank M. Crespi and T. Blein for helpful discussions; B. Scheres for critical reading of the manuscript; H. Morin, C. Troadec, A. d. B. d. Granrut, all FLOCAD team members, the imaging platform and greenhouse teams at the Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay (IPS2) for technical support; and the Eurasian Arabidopsis Stock Centre (uNASC) for sharing research materials. This work was supported by the European Research Council (ERC-SEXYPARTH, 341076), the ANR (EPISEX, ANR-17-CE20-0019), and the LabEx Saclay Plant Sciences-SPS (ANR-10-LABX-40-SPS). M.V.G.R. was supported by the Intra-European Fellowships for Career Development (IEF) (Grant PIEF-GA-2012-330908).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information
Nature Plants thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Extended Data Fig. 1 WIP genes regulate root cell division orientation.
a, Overview of wild type, wip245 (nww), wip2-4wip45 and wip2-3wip45 seedlings at 7 day-post-germination (d.p.g.). wip2-3 allele: SM_3_16705; wip2-4 allele: SM_3_23211. Scale bar: 1 cm. b-j, Images of wip245 and wip123456 embryonic roots at indicated stages. The number presented at the bottom of each image represents the counts of indicated phenotype (left) versus the total counts (right). G1: early-globular stage; G2: late-globular stage; H1: early-heart stage; H2: late-heart stage; ME: matured embryo. Magenta and blue frames: the zoom-in areas. White arrows in j indicate COL layer; white asterisks in j mark the newly formed COL cells; colored asterisks in h-i indicate possible cell division patterns from H1 to H2. Cyan: hypophysis/QC lineage; yellow: COL initial lineage; orange: COL layers; grey: delayed/failed layer formation; light purple: ground tissue initials; olive green: Epi/LRC initials; pink: vascular initials. QC: quiescent center; COL: columella; Epi: epidermis; LRC: lateral root cap. Scale bars: 50 μm. Related to Fig. 1.
Extended Data Fig. 2 Cell fate specification in wip123456 and wip245 embryonic roots.
a-e, Images of embryos, suspensors and primary roots expressing indicated reporters in wild type, wip245 and wip123456 mutants. Scale bars: 50 μm. h, Frequency and counts of the suspensors with or without DR5::GFP expression in their basal cells. Wild type, wip245, wip136 and wip123456 suspensors between globular and heart stage were sampled. Data in the frequency (the upper panel) represents mean ± s.d. from four biological replicates; sample size per replicate (n) =20. P values were calculated with two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test, mutant versus wild type: ***P < 0.005. Data in the suspensor counts (the lower panel) represents total number of examined suspensors, including but not restricting to the one used in the frequency experiments. Red lines in d,e highlight cell outlines of the wip245 hypophyseal derivatives; white arrows indicate the DR5::GFP expression in basal cells of the suspensor; white frames highlight cell outlines of the hypophyseal derivatives. Cyan dots: cells in hypophysis/QC lineage; yellow dots: cells in COL initial lineage; orange dots: cells in COL layers; grey dots: cells in delayed/failed layer formation. PR: primary root at 3 d.p.g.; QC: quiescent center; COL: columella. The experiments in a,b,f,d,e and c,g were repeated four and three times respectively, with similar results. Related to Fig. 2.
Extended Data Fig. 3 WIP1, WIP3 and WIP6 are maternally expressed.
a-d, Images of wild type, wip1 and proWIP1::cWIP1:VENUS complemented wip1 (L-12 and L-14) seeds. Scale bars: 1 mm. e-j, Images of wild type embryos, suspensors and their surrounding maternal tissues expressing indicated WIP reporters. Scale bars for e-h,j: 50 μm; scale bar for i: 1 mm. k-m, Images of wip2+/−45 siliques and developing seeds expressing indicated WIP reporters. Scale bar for k: 50 μm; scale bars for the silique panel in l,m: 1 mm; scale bars for the seed panel in l: 100 μm. n, RT-qPCR analysis of WIP1 and WIP3 transcription in wild type and wip2+/−45 siliques containing embryos between globular and heart stage. Data represents mean ± s.e.m. from three biological replicates, within each three technical repeats were included. P values were calculated with two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test, mutant versus wild type: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. o-q, Images of wip245 embryos and suspensors expressing indicated WIP reporters. Scale bars: 50 μm. White arrow in g: the proWIP3::gWIP3:VENUS signal. Cyan dots: cells in hypophysis/QC lineage; yellow dots: cells in COL initial lineage; orange dots: cells in COL layers. M: micropylar end; C: chalazal end; oi2: outer integument 2; oi1: outer integument 1 and ii1: inner integument 1 (endothelium); QC: quiescent center; COL: columella. The experiments in e-m and o-q were repeated three times, with similar results. Related to Fig. 2.
Extended Data Fig. 4 Embryonic expression of WIP genes promotes root formation.
a, GUS-staining of proWIP4::GUS in wild type siliques and developing seeds. Scale bar for the silique panel: 1 mm; scale bar for the seed panel: 100 μm. b, Images of wild type embryos, suspensors and primary roots expressing proWIP4::erCFP. Scale bars: 50 μm. c, Images of proWIP4::gWIP4:VENUS complemented wip245 embryonic and primary roots. Scale bar: 50 μm. d, Overview of wild type, wip245 and proWIP4::gWIP4:VENUS complemented wip245 (L-1 and L-5) seedlings at 7d.p.g.. Scale bars: 1 cm. e, Overview of wild type, wip245, proWIP4::cWIP1:VENUS complemented wip245 (L-5 and L-4) seedings at 7d.p.g.. Scale bars: 1 cm. Yellow frame and arrows: the proWIP4::gWIP4:VENUS signal in the uppermost suspensor cell; white frames highlight cell outlines of the hypophyseal derivatives. Cyan dots: cells in hypophysis/QC lineage; yellow dots: cells in COL initial lineage; orange dots: cells in COL layers. M: micropylar end; C: chalazal end; PR: primary root at 3 d.p.g.; QC: quiescent center; COL: columella. The experiments in a and b-e were repeated two and three times respectively, with similar results. Related to Fig. 2.
Extended Data Fig. 5 WIP1 inhibits plant growth via SRO family members.
a, Overview of wild type, rcd1-4, pOp6::cWIP1, 35::LhGR, DEX:WIP1, q195 and rcd1-4 DEX:WIP1 seedlings germinated on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 30 nM DEX at 7 d.p.g.. Two biological replicates were performed. Scale bar: 1 cm. b, Left panel: overview of 35 S::LhGR, DEX:WIP1, q195 and rcd1-4 DEX:WIP1 seedlings grown on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 30 nM DEX for 48 h. Right panel: quantification of the 48h-root growth. c, Left panel: overview of 35 S::LhGR, DEX:WIP1 and sro1 DEX:WIP1 seedlings grown on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 30 nM DEX for 48 h. Right panel: quantification of the 48h-root growth. Black dots in b,c mark the root tip positions when the seedlings were freshly transferred, the 48-root growth was measured from the black dot to the root tip. Data represents mean ± s.e.m. from four biological replicates; sample size per replicate (n) =15. Mean value of the 48h-root growth on the mock medium is set to 100%. P values were calculated with two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test, 35 S::LhGR, q195, rcd1-4 DEX:WIP1 and sro1 DEX:WIP1 versus DEX:WIP1 respectively: ***P < 0.005. Scale bar: 1 cm. Related to Fig. 3.
Extended Data Fig. 6 RCD1 and SRO1 expression.
a, RT-qPCR analysis of RCD1 and SRO1 transcription in wild type siliques containing embryos between globular and heart stage. Data represents mean ± s.e.m. from two biological replicates, within each three technical repeats were included. P values were calculated with two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test, RCD1 versus SRO1: ***P < 0.005. b-e, Images of wild type siliques, developing seeds, embryos, suspensors and primary roots expressing indicated RCD1 and SRO1 reporters. Scale bars for b,d: 1 mm; scale bars for c,e: 50 μm. f-g, Images of proRCD1::gRCD1:VENUS complemented rcd1-4 and proSRO1::gSRO1:VENUS complemented sro1 embryos and primary roots. Scale bars: 50 μm. h, Frequency of wild type and rcd1-4sro1 roots with or without periclinally divided QC cells at indicated stages. Data represents mean ± s.d.; biological replicates (N) and sample size per replicate (n) are listed in Supplementary Table 6. P values were calculated with two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test, rcd1-4sro1 versus wild type: ***P < 0.005, P1 = 0.00098, P2 = 7.67E-05, P3 = 8.05E-05. H1: early-heart stage; H2: late-heart stage; ME: mature embryo. The experiments in b-g were repeated three times, with similar results. Related to Fig. 3.
Extended Data Fig. 7 The maternal WIPs act through SRO members to inhibit embryonic root formation.
a, mPS-PI staining of amyloplasts in wild type and rcd1-4wip245 primary roots. Scale bar: 100 μm. b, Quantification of COL layer numbers in wild type, rcd1-4wip245 and sro1wip245 mature embryos and primary roots. Data represents mean ± s.e.m.; biological replicates (N) and sample size per replicate (n) are listed in Supplementary Table 7. P values were calculated with two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test, mutant versus wild type: ***P < 0.005. c-e, sro1wip245 embryonic roots at indicated stages. The number presented at the bottom of each image represents the counts of indicated phenotype (left) versus the total counts (right). G1: early-globular stage; G2: late-globular stage; H1: early-heart stage; H2: late-heart stage; ME: matured embryo. Scale bars: 50 μm. f-h, Images of sro1wip245 embryos, suspensors and primary roots expressing indicated markers. White frames highlight cell outlines of the hypophyseal derivatives. Cyan dots: cells in hypophysis/QC lineage; yellow dots: cells in COL initial lineage; grey dots: cells in delayed/failed layer formation. Scale bars: 50 μm. Cyan: hypophysis/QC lineage; yellow: COL lineage; orange: COL layers; grey: delayed/failed layer formation; light purple: ground tissue initials; olive green: Epi/LRC initials. PR: primary root at 3 d.p.g.; QC: quiescent center; COL: columella; Epi: epidermis; LRC: lateral root cap. The experiments in a, f-g and h were repeated two, four and three times respectively, with similar results. Related to Fig. 4.
Supplementary Figs. 1–8 and Tables 1–8.
Supplementary Table 4 RNA-seq analysis of wild type and wip123456 primary root meristems. Supplementary Table 5 Frequency of embryonic roots with normal or delayed/failed layer formation. Supplementary Table 6 Frequency of wild type and rcd1-4sro1 roots with or without periclinally divided QC cells. Supplementary Table 7 Quantification of COL layer numbers. Supplementary Table 8 Source data for supplementary figures.
Source Data Fig. 1
Statistical source data.
Source Data Fig. 3
Statistical source data.
Source Data Fig. 4
Statistical source data.
Source Data Extended Data Fig. 2
Statistical source data.
Source Data Extended Data Fig. 3
Statistical source data.
Source Data Extended Data Fig. 5
Statistical source data.
Source Data Extended Data Fig. 6
Statistical source data.
Source Data Extended Data Fig. 7
Statistical source data.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Du, Y., Roldan, M.V.G., Haraghi, A. et al. Spatially expressed WIP genes control Arabidopsis embryonic root development. Nat. Plants 8, 635–645 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-022-01172-4
This article is cited by
A dialogue between generations
Nature Plants (2022)