Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

A suppressor of axillary meristem maturation promotes longevity in flowering plants

Abstract

Post-embryonic development and longevity of flowering plants are, for a large part, determined by the activity and maturation state of stem cell niches formed in the axils of leaves, the so-called axillary meristems (AMs)1,2. The genes that are associated with AM maturation and underlie the differences between monocarpic (reproduce once and die) annual and the longer-lived polycarpic (reproduce more than once) perennial plants are still largely unknown. Here we identify a new role for the Arabidopsis AT-HOOK MOTIF NUCLEAR LOCALIZED 15 (AHL15) gene as a suppressor of AM maturation. Loss of AHL15 function accelerates AM maturation, whereas ectopic expression of AHL15 suppresses AM maturation and promotes longevity in monocarpic Arabidopsis and tobacco. Accordingly, in Arabidopsis grown under longevity-promoting short-day conditions, or in polycarpic Arabidopsis lyrata, expression of AHL15 is upregulated in AMs. Together, our results indicate that AHL15 and other AHL clade-A genes play an important role, directly downstream of flowering genes (SOC1, FUL) and upstream of the flowering-promoting hormone gibberellic acid, in suppressing AM maturation and extending the plant’s lifespan.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: AHL15 represses AM maturation in Arabidopsis.
Fig. 2: AHL15 promotes longevity in Arabidopsis and tobacco.
Fig. 3: AHL15 is essential for suppression of AM maturation in the Arabidopsis soc1 ful mutant.
Fig. 4: AHL15 delays AM maturation in part by suppression of GA biosynthesis.

Data availability

All processed data are contained in the manuscript, the Extended Data or the Supplementary Information. Raw data and materials generated during this study are available upon reasonable request.

References

  1. 1.

    Grbić, V. & Bleecker, A. B. Axillary meristem development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 21, 215–223 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Wang, B., Smith, S. M. & Li, J. Genetic regulation of shoot architecture. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 69, 437–468 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Park, S. J., Eshed, Y. & Lippman, Z. B. Meristem maturation and inflorescence architecture—lessons from the Solanaceae. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 17, 70–77 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Munné-Bosch, S. Do perennials really senesce? Trends Plant Sci. 13, 216–220 (2008).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Amasino, R. Floral induction and monocarpic versus polycarpic life histories. Genome Biol. 10, 228 (2009).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Melzer, S. et al. Flowering-time genes modulate meristem determinacy and growth form in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat. Genet. 40, 1489–1492 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kiefer, C. et al. Divergence of annual and perennial species in the Brassicaceae and the contribution of cis-acting variation at FLC orthologues. Mol. Ecol. 26, 3437–3457 (2017).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Zhao, J., Favero, D. S., Peng, H. & Neff, M. M. Arabidopsis thaliana AHL family modulates hypocotyl growth redundantly by interacting with each other via the PPC/DUF296 domain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, E4688–E4697 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Street, I. H., Shah, P. K., Smith, A. M., Avery, N. & Neff, M. M. The AT-hook-containing proteins SOB3/AHL29 and ESC/AHL27 are negative modulators of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 54, 1–14 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Xiao, C., Chen, F., Yu, X., Lin, C. & Fu, Y.-F. Over-expression of an AT-hook gene, AHL22, delays flowering and inhibits the elongation of the hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol. Biol. 71, 39–50 (2009).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ng, K.-H., Yu, H. & Ito, T. AGAMOUS controls GIANT KILLER, a multifunctional chromatin modifier in reproductive organ patterning and differentiation. PLoS Biol. 7, e1000251 (2009).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Yun, J., Kim, Y.-S., Jung, J.-H., Seo, P. J. & Park, C.-M. The AT-hook motif-containing protein AHL22 regulates flowering initiation by modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T chromatin in Arabidopsis. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 15307–15316 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Andrés, F. & Coupland, G. The genetic basis of flowering responses to seasonal cues. Nat. Rev. Genet. 13, 627–639 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ko, J., Han, K., Park, S. & Yang, J. Plant body weight-induced secondary growth in Arabidopsis and its transcription phenotype revealed by whole-transcriptome profiling. Plant Physiol. 135, 1069–1083 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Bergonzi, S. et al. Mechanisms of age-dependent response to winter temperature in perennial flowering of Arabis alpina. Science 340, 1094–1097 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Zhou, C.-M. et al. Molecular basis of age-dependent vernalization in Cardamine flexuosa. Science 340, 1097–1100 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lee, J. & Lee, I. Regulation and function of SOC1, a flowering pathway integrator. J. Exp. Bot. 61, 2247–2254 (2010).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Immink, R. G. H. et al. Characterization of SOC1’s central role in flowering by the identification of its upstream and downstream regulators. Plant Physiol. 160, 433–449 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Tao, Z. et al. Genome-wide identification of SOC1 and SVP targets during the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 70, 549–561 (2012).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Matsoukas, I. G., Massiah, A. J. & Thomas, B. Florigenic and antiflorigenic signaling in plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 53, 1827–1842 (2012).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Turnbull, C. Long-distance regulation of flowering time. J. Exp. Bot. 62, 4399–43413 (2011).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Song, Y. H., Ito, S. & Imaizumi, T. Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves. Trends Plant Sci. 18, 575–583 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Andrés, F. et al. SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE reduces gibberellin biosynthesis at the Arabidopsis shoot apex to regulate the floral transition. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2760–E2679 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Yu, S. et al. Gibberellin regulates the Arabidopsis floral transition through miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA promoter binding-like transcription factors. Plant Cell 24, 3320–3332 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Wang, J. W. Regulation of flowering time by the miR156-mediated age pathway. J. Exp. Bot. 5, 4723–4730 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Matsushita, A., Furumoto, T., Ishida, S. & Takahashi, Y. AGF1, an AT-hook protein, is necessary for the negative feedback of AtGA3ox1 encoding GA 3-oxidase. Plant Physiol. 143, 1152–1162 (2007).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Huang, S. et al. Overexpression of 20-Oxidase confers a gibberellin-overproduction phenotype in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 118, 773–781 (1998).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Rieu, I. et al. The gibberellin biosynthetic genes AtGA20ox1 and AtGA20ox2 act, partially redundantly, to promote growth and development throughout the Arabidopsis life cycle. Plant J. 53, 488–504 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Tilmes, V. et al. Gibberellins act downstream of Arabis PERPETUAL FLOWERING1 to accelerate floral induction during vernalization. Plant Physiol. 180, 1549–1563 (2019).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Zhao, J., Favero, D. S., Qiu, J., Roalson, E. H. & Neff, M. M. Insights into the evolution and diversification of the AT-hook Motif Nuclear Localized gene family in land plants. BMC Plant Biol. 14, 266 (2014).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Remington, D. L., Figueroa, J. & Rane, M. Timing of shoot development transitions affects degree of perenniality in Arabidopsis lyrata (Brassicaceae). BMC Plant Biol. 15, 1–13 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Lim, P. O. et al. Overexpression of a chromatin architecture-controlling AT-hook protein extends leaf longevity and increases the post-harvest storage life of plants. Plant J. 52, 1140–1153 (2007).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Dekker, J., Marti-Renom, M. A. & Mirny, L. A. Exploring the three-dimensional organization of genomes: interpreting chromatin interaction data. Nat. Rev. Genet. 14, 390–403 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Wang, J.-W., Czech, B. & Weigel, D. miR156-regulated SPL transcription factors define an endogenous flowering pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell 138, 738–749 (2009).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Karimi, M., Depicker, A. & Hilson, P. Recombinational cloning with plant gateway vectors. Plant Physiol. 145, 1144–1154 (2007).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Passarinho, P. et al. BABY BOOM target genes provide diverse entry points into cell proliferation and cell growth pathways. Plant Mol. Biol. 68, 225–237 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Becker, D., Kemper, E., Schell, J. & Masterson, R. New plant binary vectors with selectable markers located proximal to the left T-DNA border. Plant Mol. Biol. 20, 1195–1197 (1992).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Den Dulk-Ras, A. & Hooykaas J. P. Electroporation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Methods Mol. Biol. 55, 63–72 (1995).

  39. 39.

    Clough, S. J. & Bent, aF. Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 16, 735–743 (1998).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Baltes, N. J., Gil-Humanes, J., Cermak, T., Atkins, P. & Voytas, D. F. DNA replicons for plant genome engineering. Plant Cell 26, 151163 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497 (1962).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Doyle, J. J. Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus 12, 13–15 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Anandalakshmi, R. et al. A viral suppressor of gene silencing in plants. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13079–13084 (1998).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Pfaffl, M. W. A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT–PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 29, e45 (2001).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Mourik, H. Van, Muiño, J. M., Pajoro, A., Angenent, G. C. & Kaufmann, K. Characterization of in vivo DNA-binding eents of plant transcription factors by ChIP–seq: experimental potocol and computational analysis. Methods Mol. Biol 1284, 93–121 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Balanzà, V. et al. Genetic control of meristem arrest and life span in Arabidopsis by a FRUITFULL-APETALA2 pathway. Nat. Commun. 9, 565 (2018).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Bemer, M. et al. FRUITFULL controls SAUR10 expression and regulates Arabidopsis growth and architecture. J. Exp. Bot. 68, 3391–3403 (2017).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Altschup, S. F., Gish, W., Pennsylvania, T. & Park, U. Basic local alignment search tool. J. Mol. Biol. 215, 403–410 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Katoh, K., Misawa, K., Kuma, K. & Miyata, T. MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Res. 30, 3059–3066 (2002).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Capella-gutiérrez, S., Silla-martínez, J. M. & Gabaldón, T. TrimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses. Bioinformatics 25, 1972–1973 (2009).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Eddy, S. R. Accelerated profile HMM searches. PLoS Comp. Biol. 7, e1002195 (2011).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Guindon, S. & Gascuel, O. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 5, 696–704 (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19, 1572–1574 (2003).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Liebert, M. A., Chen, K., Durand, D., Farach-colton, M. & Al, C. E. T. NOTUNG: a program for dating gene duplications. J. Comp. Biol. 7, 429–447 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Paradis, E., Claude, J. & Strimmer, K. APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language. Bioinformatics 20, 289–290 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Harmon, L. J. et al. GEIGER: investigating evolutionary radiations. Bioinformatics 24, 129–131 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank K. Boutilier and T. Greb for critical comments on the manuscript. O.K. was financially supported by a grant from the Iran Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (no. 89100156), and subsidies were provided by Generade and the Building Blocks of Life research programme (no. 737.016.013, to R.O.), which is (partly) financed by the Dutch Research Council (NWO). M.K. was financially supported by a fellowship of the Institute of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering at the Agricultural University of Peshawar with financial support by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. R.R.H. was financially supported by the KU Leuven Research Fund. M.B. was supported by grant no. ALWOP.199, which is (partly) financed by NWO. P.M. and M.C. were supported in part by Innovation Subsidy Collaborative Projects (no. IS054064) from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

O.K. and R.O. conceived and supervised the project. All authors designed the experiments and analysed and interpreted the results. O.K. and A.R. performed the majority of the Arabidopsis experiments, with contributions from M.B., P.M. and M.C. M.K. generated and analysed the tobacco lines. R.R.H. and V.N. analysed the AHL gene families in mono- and polycarpic plant species. O.K. and R.O. wrote the manuscript. All authors read and commented on versions of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Remko Offringa.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Peer review information Nature Plants thanks Richard Amasino and the other, anonymous, reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Extended data

Extended Data Fig. 1 Expression of a dominant negative AHL15-ΔG mutant protein.

Expression of a dominant negative AHL15-ΔG mutant protein in the Arabidopsis ahl15 mutant background causes early flowering and impairs seed development. a. The schematic domain structure of AHL15 and the dominant negative AHL15-ΔG version, in which six-conserved amino-acids (Gly-Arg-Phe-Glu-Ile-Leu, red box) are deleted from the C-terminal PPC domain. b. Wild-type seed development in pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG siliques. c. Aberrant seed development (arrowheads) in ahl15/+ pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG siliques (observed in 3 independent pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG lines crossed with the ahl15 mutant). Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. d, e. The number of rosette leaves produced by the SAM in wild-type, ahl15, pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG and ahl15/+ pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG plants grown in long day (LD, d) or short day (SD, e) conditions. Two independent transgenic lines (1 and 2) were used in each experiment. Dots in d and e indicate the rosette leaf number per plant (n=15 biologically independent plants), horizontal lines the mean and error bars the s.e.m. Letters (a, b, c) indicate statistically significant differences (P < 0.01), as determined by a one-way ANOVA with a Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. The P values can be found in the Supplementary Tables 6 and 7.

Extended Data Fig. 2 AHL15 and other clade A AHL genes represses AM maturation in Arabidopsis.

a, b. The number of rosette leaves produced per rosette AM of wild-type, ahl15, ahl15 pAHL15:AHL15, pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG and ahl15/+ pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG plants 5 (a), 9 (b), or 10 weeks (c) after germination in long day (LD, a,b) or short day (SD, c) conditions. d, e. The number of cauline leaves produced by rosette AMs (d) or by aerial AMs (e) of 7-week-old wild-type, ahl15, ahl15 pAHL15:AHL15, pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG and ahl15/+ pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG plants. Dots in a-e indicate rosette or cauline leaf number per AM per plant (n=15 biologically independent plants), horizontal lines the mean, and error bars the s.e.m. Letters (a, b, c) indicate statistically significant differences (P < 0.01), as determined by a one-way ANOVA with a Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. The P values are provided in Supplementary Tables 812. f. A lateral inflorescence with cauline leaves formed on the first inflorescence node of a wild-type (top) or ahl15/+ pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG plant (bottom). Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.

Extended Data Fig. 3 Arabidopsis AHL genes enhance the vegetative activity and suppress the floral transition of rosette AMs.

a. Schematic representation of the vegetative activity of rosette AMs of six-week-old wild-type, ahl15 and ahl15/+ pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG-1 plants. Each row represents a single plant, and each square represents an individual AM in a cotyledon axil (C1 and C2) or in a rosette leaf axils (L1 to L12). The numbers within a square represent the number of rosette leaves produced by a rosette AM. A green square indicates a leaf axil with an active AM, as indicated by bud outgrowth or leaf development, and a white square indicates a leaf axil without an (active) AM. b. Developmental phase of the rosette AMs of six-week-old wild-type, ahl15 and ahl15/+ pAHL15:AHL15-ΔG-1 plants. White, yellow, green or red squares indicate axils without (active) AM, or rosette AMs with at least one visible leaf primordium, producing rosette leaves (vegetative) or producing cauline leaves or flowers (reproductive), respectively. Plants in a and b were grown in LD conditions.

Extended Data Fig. 4 AHL15 overexpression delays floral transition of the SAM and represses AM maturation.

a. Shoot phenotype of a flowering 7-week-old 35S:AHL15-GR plant that was DEX-treated upon bolting (5 weeks old). Similar results were obtained in four independent experiments. b, c. Number of rosette leaves (b) or cauline leaves (c) produced by rosette AMs of 7-week-old mock-treated wild-type, DEX-treated wild-type, mock-treated 35S:AHL15-GR and DEX-treated 35S:AHL15-GR plants. Plants were DEX-treated upon bolting (5 weeks old) and scored 2 weeks later. d. The number of rosette leaves produced by the SAM in mock-treated wild-type, DEX-treated wild-type, mock-treated 35S:AHL15-GR and DEX-treated 35S:AHL15-GR plants. Non-flowering (3-week-old) plants were treated and the SAM-produced rosette leaves were counted after bolting. Dots in b-d indicate number of leaves (per AM or SAM) per plant (n=15 biologically independent plants), horizontal lines the mean, and error bars the s.e.m. Letters (a, b, c) indicate statistically significant differences (P < 0.01), as determined by a one-way ANOVA with a Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. The P values are provided in Supplementary Tables 1315. Plants were grown in LD conditions.

Extended Data Fig. 5 Overexpression of Arabidopsis AHL15 paralogs or putative orthologs represses AM maturation in Arabidopsis.

Overexpression of Arabidopsis AHL15 paralogs or putative orthologs represses AM maturation in Arabidopsis. (a and b) Wild-type (Col-0) or transgenic 7-week-old Arabidopsis plants overexpressing Arabidopsis AHL19, AHL20, AHL27 and AHL29 (a), or the putative AHL15 orthologs from Brassica oleracea (BoAHL15) or Medicago trunculata (MtAHL15) (b). For a and b similar results were obtained in two independent experiments. Plants were grown in LD conditions. For presentation purposes, the original background of the images was replaced by a homogeneous white background.

Extended Data Fig. 6 AHL15 enhances the longevity of short day-grown Arabidopsis plants.

Phenotype of 5-month-old wild-type (Col-0, left), ahl15 (middle) and ahl15 pAHL15:AHL15 (right) plants. The plants were grown in SD conditions. Similar results were obtained in two independent experiments. For presentation purposes, the original background of the image in was replaced by a homogeneous white background.

Extended Data Fig. 7 AHL15 expression is day length sensitive.

Expression of the pAHL15:GUS reporter in the axil of a cauline leaf (left, arrowheads), Young lateral inflorescence (middle) and rosette base (right) of a 9-week-old plant grown in LD conditions (top) or a 4-month-old plant grown under SD conditions (bottom). Similar results were obtained in two independent experiments.

Extended Data Fig. 8 AHL15 overexpression in the rosette base and leaf axils delays AM maturation in Arabidopsis.

a. Expression of pMYB58:GUS and pMYB103:GUS reporters in the rosette base (top) or leaf axils (bottom) of Arabidopsis plants respectively one or three weeks after flowering, as monitored by histochemical GUS staining. Similar results were obtained in two independent experiments. b, c. The number of cauline leaves produced by rosette AMs (b) or aerial AMs (c) of 6-week-old (b) or 7-week-old (c) wild-type, pMYB85:AHL15 or pMYB103:AHL15 plants grown in LD conditions. Dots in b and c indicate number of cauline leaves produced per AM per plant (n=15 biologically independent plants), horizontal lines indicate the mean, and error bars the s.e.m. Letters (a, b, c) indicate statistically significant differences (P < 0.01), as determined by a one-way ANOVA with a Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. The P values can be found in Supplementary Tables 16 and 17.

Extended Data Fig. 9 AHL15 overexpression promotes longevity in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

a. Renewed vegetative growth on aerial branches of a 5-month-old Arabidopsis 35S:AHL15-GR plant, 4 weeks after spraying with 20 μM DEX. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. b. Efficient production of leaves and inflorescences in a 3-year-old 35S::AHL15-GR tobacco plant, 3 weeks after treatment with 30 μM DEX, following 6 previous cycles of DEX-induced seed production. Similar results were obtained in two independent experiments. Plants in a and b were grown in LD conditions.

Extended Data Fig. 10 Expression of clade-A AHL genes in seedlings or in the rosette base of flowering Arabidopsis or A. lyrata plants.

a. Shoot phenotype of a 3-month-old Arabidopsis (upper panel) or a 4-month-old A. lyrata (lower panel) plant grown in LD conditions. Similar results were obtained in two independent experiments. b, c. qPCR analysis of the expression of clade-A AHL genes in 2-week-old seedlings or in the rosette base of 2-month-old flowering plants of A. thaliana (b) or A. lyrata (c). Dots in b and c indicate relative expression levels per experiment (n=3 biologically independent replicates), bars indicate the mean, and error bars indicate the s.e.m. Asterisks indicate significant differences from mock-treated plants (* p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001), as determined by a two-sided Student’s t-test.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–5, and Tables 1 and 2.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary Tables 3–19.

Statistics corresponding to figures.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Karami, O., Rahimi, A., Khan, M. et al. A suppressor of axillary meristem maturation promotes longevity in flowering plants. Nat. Plants 6, 368–376 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-020-0637-z

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing