Cell polarity, manifested by the localization of proteins to distinct polar plasma membrane domains, is a key prerequisite of multicellular life. In plants, PIN auxin transporters are prominent polarity markers crucial for a plethora of developmental processes. Cell polarity mechanisms in plants are distinct from other eukaryotes and still largely elusive. In particular, how the cell polarities are propagated and maintained following cell division remains unknown. Plant cytokinesis is orchestrated by the cell plate—a transient centrifugally growing endomembrane compartment ultimately forming the cross wall1. Trafficking of polar membrane proteins is typically redirected to the cell plate, and these will consequently have opposite polarity in at least one of the daughter cells2,3,4,5. Here, we provide mechanistic insights into post-cytokinetic re-establishment of cell polarity as manifested by the apical, polar localization of PIN2. We show that the apical domain is defined in a cell-intrinsic manner and that re-establishment of PIN2 localization to this domain requires de novo protein secretion and endocytosis, but not basal-to-apical transcytosis. Furthermore, we identify a PINOID-related kinase WAG1, which phosphorylates PIN2 in vitro6 and is transcriptionally upregulated specifically in dividing cells, as a crucial regulator of post-cytokinetic PIN2 polarity re-establishment.
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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
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We thank N. Geldner, C. Luschnig, G. Jürgens, R. Offringa and Y. Takano for sharing published material. We would also like to acknowledge M. Adamowski, U. Kania and C. Cuesta for providing entry clones, and the Biomaging Facility at IST Austria for providing excellent imaging service and assistance. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme/ERC grant agreement no. 742985. Additionally, funding was received from the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic/MŠMT project NPUI - LO1417.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supplementary Figures 1–6 and Supplementary Table 1.
PIN2::PIN2–Dendra dynamics in dividing cells. The experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results.
KN::PIN2–GFP dynamics in dividing cells. The experiment was repeated independently more than three times with similar results.
Effect of AXL2 overexpression on KN::PIN2–GFP dynamics. The experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results.
KN::PIN2–GFP dynamics in pid– wag1– wag2– mutant background. The experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results.
WAG1::WAG1–GFP dynamics in dividing cells. The experiment was repeated independently three times with similar results.
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Glanc, M., Fendrych, M. & Friml, J. Mechanistic framework for cell-intrinsic re-establishment of PIN2 polarity after cell division. Nature Plants 4, 1082–1088 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-018-0318-3
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