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Nature Plantsvolume 3pages765766 (2017) | Download Citation

Gibberellins (GAs) control key growth and developmental processes in plants. Real-time monitoring of GA concentrations in living tissues is critical for understanding the actions of this hormone class. A first-generation optogenetic GA-nano-indicator now illuminates the effects of GA levels on cell length and light signalling.

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Author information


  1. Department of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, R. H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

    • Tamar Azoulay-Shemer
  2. Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0116, USA

    • Po-Kai Hsu
    •  & Julian I. Schroeder


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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Tamar Azoulay-Shemer or Julian I. Schroeder.

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