Seeing is believing

Article metrics

Gibberellins (GAs) control key growth and developmental processes in plants. Real-time monitoring of GA concentrations in living tissues is critical for understanding the actions of this hormone class. A first-generation optogenetic GA-nano-indicator now illuminates the effects of GA levels on cell length and light signalling.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Real-time monitoring of GA concentrations in individual cells in plant tissues.


  1. 1.

    Hedden, P. & Thomas, S. G. Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 49: The Gibberellins (Wiley, Chichester, 2016).

  2. 2.

    Hedden, P. Trends Genet. 19, 5–9 (2003).

  3. 3.

    Silverstone, A. L. et al. Plant Cell 13, 1555–1566 (2001).

  4. 4.

    Rizza, A., Walia, A., Lanquar, A., Frommer, W. B. & Jones, A. M. Nat. Plants (2017).

  5. 5.

    Okumoto, S., Jones, A. & Frommer, W. B. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 63, 663–706 (2012).

  6. 6.

    Waadt, R. et al. Bioessays 37, 1338–1349 (2015).

  7. 7.

    Ho, C. H. & Frommer, W. B. eLife 3, e01917 (2014).

  8. 8.

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, M. et al. Nature 437, 693–698 (2005).

  9. 9.

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, M. et al. Plant Cell 19, 2140–2155 (2007).

  10. 10.

    Ubeda-Tomas, S. et al. Nat. Cell Biol. 10, 625–628 (2008).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Tamar Azoulay-Shemer or Julian I. Schroeder.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark