Abstract
Spinorbit coupling plays an important role in the spin Hall effect and topological insulators. BoseEinstein condensates with spinorbit coupling show remarkable quantum phase transition. In this work we control an exciton polariton condensate – a macroscopically coherent state of hybrid light and matter excitations – by virtue of the RashbaDresselhaus (RD) spinorbit coupling. This is achieved in a liquidcrystal filled microcavity where CsPbBr_{3} perovskite microplates act as the gain material at room temperature. Specifically, we realize an artificial gauge field acting on the CsPbBr_{3} exciton polariton condensate, splitting the condensate fractions with opposite spins in both momentum and real space. Besides the ground states, higherorder discrete polariton modes can also be split by the RD effect. Our work paves the way to manipulate exciton polariton condensates with a synthetic gauge field based on the RD spinorbit coupling at room temperature.
Similar content being viewed by others
Introduction
The spinorbit coupling describes the interaction between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a particle^{1,2}. It leads to a plethora of physical phenomena such as the spin Hall effect^{1,3,4} and topological insulators^{5,6,7}. Dresselhaus^{8} and Rashba^{9} proposed electronic spinorbit coupling in noncentrosymmetric zincblende or wurtzite semiconductors. The engineering of the spinorbit coupling in solids is usually limited by the growth or fabrication process of the materials such as highquality semiconductors. Thus an adjustable platform, where the spinorbit coupling like the Rashba or Dresselhaus coefficient can be precisely manipulated, is highly sought after. Cold atom condensates offer the possibility to tune the spinorbit coupling precisely using lasers to engineer the fine structure of the system states. For example, in the BoseEinstein condensation (BEC) of cold atoms, the spinorbit coupling provides the possibility to investigate quantum manybody phase transitions from a spatially spinmixed state to a phaseseparated state^{10,11}. A stripe phase with supersolid properties was also demonstrated in a cold atom condensate^{12}. However, the ultralow temperature needed to realize BECs of atoms limits the applicability and fundamental investigation of the spinorbit coupling on bosonic condensates. Exciton polaritons, which form due to the strong coupling between excitons in quantum wells and cavity photons in a planar microcavity, can undergo a similar condensation process as the cold atoms, albeit in an inherently nonequilibrium state. Being a composite boson with a small effective mass, an exciton polariton can condense at a much higher temperature or even up to room temperature^{13,14,15}, so it can provide an alternative to the study of cold atom condensates with spinorbit coupling^{16} or synthetic gauge potentials^{17} which can be electrically tuned^{18} without complicated laser cooling. Exciton polaritons can inherit the spinorbit coupling of light^{19} from the cavity photon component that can be controlled by the detuning of the microcavity. The spinorbit coupling of light results in the quantum spin Hall effect of light^{20}, spin Hall effect of light^{21}, and a noncyclic optical geometric phase in a rolledup microcavity^{22}. In a liquid crystal (LC) filled FabryPerot microcavity, a synthetic spinorbit interaction similar to the spinorbit interaction described by the original RD Hamiltonian has been realized at room temperature^{23,24}. One key point in that work is that a voltage can control the orientation of the molecular director of the LC molecules, which leads to an active modulation of the anisotropic refractive index of the cavity layer.
Utilizing this concept in a system in which bosonic condensation with adjustable spinorbit coupling can be investigated at room temperature requires an active material with robust excitonic excitations that strongly couple to the cavity mode with tunable RD coefficients. Also, the exciton polariton condensation is needed which can be modulated by external means. Among the semiconductors that can sustain exciton polariton condensates at room temperature, the perovskite CsPbBr_{3} has attracted considerable attention due to its supreme photonic properties. Inserted into a microcavity, CsPbBr_{3} offers an excellent platform to investigate strong and novel lightmatter interaction phenomena, such as exciton polariton condensation in a waveguide or a lattice^{25,26} at room temperature. The anisotropy of the perovskite can be used to realize an effective Rashba Hamiltonian below condensation threshold^{27,28}, tune the Berry curvature^{29}, or observe a nonHermitian topological invariant^{30,31}. However, the effects of RD spinorbit coupling on exciton polariton condensates at room temperature remains unexplored. With the strong nonlinearity, RD spinorbit coupled polariton condensates open the door to study intriguing spin dynamics, instability, vortices, manybody nonlinear physics^{32}, and novel multistability phenomena with spinorbit coupling.
In the present work, we demonstrate the RD effect on the exciton polariton condensate formed in a planar cavity with CsPbBr_{3} microplates as active material and filled with a LC layer. This LC microcavity^{23,33} offers to tune the RD coefficients and realize a synthetic gauge field by applying a voltage across the microcavity. We insert CsPbBr_{3} microplates into the cavity layer and demonstrate the exciton polariton condensation at room temperature. With the applied external voltage the polariton condensate can be actively manipulated. More importantly, the applied voltage across the microcavity tunes the exciton polariton condensate by the RD effect which acts as a synthetic gauge field and splits the exciton polaritons having opposite spins in real space and momentum space. Our work paves the way to explore spinorbit coupling induced quantum phase transitions based on exciton polariton condensates at room temperature.
Results
In the LC microcavity where CsPbBr_{3} microplates are inserted, on the one hand, cavity photons can strongly couple with excitons in the CsPbBr_{3} layer. On the other hand, cavity photon modes can be tuned by electrically controlling the crystal molecules’ orientation, giving rise to the RD effect. When the two effects occur simultaneously in this system, the system’s Hamiltonian (4 × 4) in the excitonphoton circularly polarized basis reads
Here E_{x} is the exciton energy which is the same for different spins. E_{p} is the ground state energy of cavity photon modes with effective mass m. The two cavity photon modes are perpendicularly linearly polarized and have different parity. The former leads to that they can strongly couple only to their corresponding excitons with the coupling strength Ω and the latter results in the RD effect with the spinsplitting strength ξ along k_{x} direction. β_{0} denotes the XY splitting. β_{1} represents the TETM splitting and φ ∈ [0 2π] is the polar angle. The composite polariton particles inherit the RD interaction from the cavity photon component. The LC molecules can be rotated by the external voltage, which modulates the anisoptropic refractive index distribution within the microcavity. The changes of the refractive indices alter only one of the horizontally linearly polarized cavity photon modes, such that two lowerpolariton (LP) branches can approach each other and consequently are shifted along k_{x} direction, depending on the polarization, when they are brought into resonance.
Firstly, we design the microcavity by calculating both the reflectivity and the electric field distribution of the structure using the transfer matrix method (the simulation results are shown in Supplementary Fig. 1). The strong excitonphoton coupling can be realized thanks to the giant binding energy and oscillator strength of the excitons in the CsPbBr_{3} microplate which is placed at the local maximum of the electric field inside the microcavity (c.f. Supplementary Fig. 1b). In the experiments, the CsPbBr_{3} microplate was grown by the CVD method (the details can be found in the “Methods” section), and then it was transferred onto the bottom DBR with the center wavelength of the stop band at 530 nm. The microcavity was fabricated by pasting the top DBR afterwards using adhesive (the details of the fabrication process of the microcavity can be found in the “Methods” section). Finally, the LC is filled into the empty cavity layer to form the microcavity (the details of the microcavity can be found in the “Methods” section). The schematics of the whole structure of the sample is illustrated in Fig. 1.
We measure the dispersion of the microcavity for a voltage of 2 V by a homemade momentumspace spectroscopy (see Supplementary Fig. 2 in the SI). The excitation source is a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of around 400 nm and spot size of around 58 μm with a Gaussian line profile. The size of the CsPbBr_{3} microplate we chose in the experiments is around 10 μm, which can be covered by the pump laser spot. The photoluminescence dispersion of the microcavity below the threshold is shown in Fig. 2a, where several sets of modes are observed below the exciton resonance at 2.406 eV. We note that there exist some dispersions with much larger curvature, which come from the area outside the CsPbBr_{3} microplate^{34} and do not affect the main results in the current experiments. The strong coupling is confirmed by the flatness of the bands at larger momenta (Supplementary Fig. 3c). We note that the reflectivity of the polaritons is not visible due to the high reflectivity of the DBRs at the stop band. Each set of the modes contains two lower branch polaritons (LP) due to the anisotropy of the microcavity induced by the LC cavity layer. Due to the finite size of the CsPbBr_{3} microplate, the dispersions become discrete at larger momenta. The appearance of multiple sets of polaritons is due to the microcavity which sustains multiple cavity photon modes that can strongly couple with the nearresonant excitons. The curvature of the lower branch polariton modes is increased when the detuning between the cavity photon modes and the exciton resonance of the CsPbBr_{3} microplate is smaller (more negative). We note that similar multiple polariton branches are also observed in a bare perovskite crystal^{35}.
Within each set of modes in Fig. 2a, the polarization of the two LP branches is perpendicular to each other: LP1 and LP3 are horizontally linearly polarized, while LP2 and LP4 are vertically linearly polarized. The parity of LP1 and LP2 are the same, and they are opposite to LP3 and LP4 which share the same parity too. Figure 3a–c confirms the existence of the XY splitting due to the anisotropy of the microcavity. We note that the anisotropy of the CsPbBr_{3} microplate itself can be neglected due to the very small thickness of around 200 nm. The polariton branches are fitted by coupled oscillator models and one can estimate the Rabi splitting of the polaritons within the microcavity to be around 90 meV for LP1LP4. The exciton and cavity photon fractions of the multibranch polaritons can be obtained by calculating the Hopfield coefficients (see Supplementary Fig. 4 in the SI). It shows that the cavity photon components in the LP3 and LP4 are much higher than the LP1 and LP2 branches due to the more negative detuning, thus the dispersion curvature is larger as shown in Fig. 2a.
Increasing the pump fluence to around 18.4 μJ/cm^{2} leads to the condensation of exciton polaritons, which can be seen in Fig. 2b. The polaritons macroscopically occupy the ground state of the lower branch LP4 with a superlinear increase of the integrated intensity against the pumping flux, the reduction of the linewidth at the threshold, and the continuous blueshift of the energy peaks (Fig. 2c, d). To check whether the condensation is in the strong coupling regime, we replot the data in Fig. 2b using a log scale (Supplementary Fig. 3b in the SI). It shows that the dispersion at larger momenta (much weaker above the threshold) is the same to that below the threshold, evidencing the polariton condensation. In real space the polariton condensate is localized near the center of the pump spot with a size of around 5 μm and the position of the localization depends on the inhomogeneity of the perovskites. To make sure whether macroscopic coherence develops or not above the threshold, we built a Michelson interferometer and interfered the real space images of the polariton condensate with itself rotated by 180 degrees. Clear interference fringes are observed above threshold, whereas they are absent below the threshold (see Supplementary Fig. 5). Further increasing the pumping fluence leads to polariton condensation at both LP3 and LP4 branches, as shown in Supplementary Fig. 6. The linear polarization of the two polariton condensates with different energies are orthogonal to each other, which is the same to the result below the threshold in Fig. 2a.
Measurements discussed above were performed with a voltage of around 2 V applied across the microcavity (the details of the measurements can be found in the “Methods” section), where the RD coefficients are too small such that the RD effect can be neglected. We increase the voltage in small steps and monitor the dispersion of the microcavity below and above the threshold. Increasing the voltage moves only the horizontally linearly polarized LP branches with the vertically linearly polarized branches fixed, such that the energy difference between the two sets is decreased, showing the same behavior as the cavity modes in ref. ^{23}. When the two LP branches with opposite parity and orthogonal polarization come into resonance at the voltage of around 4.5 V, the Rashba interaction shifts the two branches apart along the k_{x} direction. Figure 3d, e shows the left and righthanded circularly polarized dispersion along k_{x} direction when k_{y }= 0, where the two spin components are shifted towards opposite directions along k_{x} (Fig. 3f). A similar spindependent shift of the dispersion is also observed above the threshold where two condensates with opposite parity and orthogonal polarization come into resonance, as shown in Fig. 3g and h. We also measured the dispersion at fixed pumping fluence (below threshold, Supplementary Fig. 7a–h, the pump fluence is the same as Fig. 3d, e; above the threshold, Supplementary Fig. 7i–p, the pump fluence is the same as Fig. 3g, h), but different voltages ranging from 3 to 6 V, as shown in Supplementary Fig. 7. One polariton branch is tuned to approach the other fixed branch when the voltage is increased from 3 to 4.5 V. Further increasing the voltage splits the two polariton branches. During this process in Supplementary Fig. 7i–p, the threshold for the condensation of the two polariton branches can vary greatly. For example, the population of the condensed polaritons in the lowerbranch LP4 at the voltage larger than 5.5 V is reduced significantly, so that polaritons mainly condense to one branch LP5. In this case, the external voltage directly lets us manipulate the population and threshold of the polariton condensate, which is very challenging to be realized in common microcavities.
Finally, we measure the spindependent momentum and realspace imaging of the polariton condensate under different voltages. In the experiments, the polaritons condense at k_{x} = 0, such that we observe the condensate mainly located at the center of the Brillouin zone when the voltage is zero. The spindependent momentum space imaging can be seen in Fig. 4 where the spinsplitting of the polariton condensate is absent when the voltage is zero (Fig. 4a–c), whereas the polariton condensate is split at 4.5 V as shown in Fig. 4d–f. In this scenario, the momentum of the polariton condensate is shifted and different spin components gain a nonzero momentum of around k_{x} = ±0.258 μm^{−1}. In accordance with the momentum space, the RD interaction in the microcavity modifies the distribution of the polariton condensate in real space due to the nonzero momentum gained. In the cold atom condensate, the two Raman lasers induce the coupling of the inner states of the atoms and create the Rashba interaction, which results in the separation of the atoms with different spins. Similar separation in real space with cavity photons is observed in ref. ^{36}. In our experiments, we measure the distribution of the exciton polariton condensate in different spin polarizations and observe the spinsplitting of the polariton condensate in real space (Fig. 4j–l) by about 0.86 μm. This spinsplitting of the polariton condensate in real space is also absent when the voltage across the microcavity is zero (Fig. 4g–i), demonstrating the RD effect occurring at 4.5 V. The other two Stokes parameters in momentum and real space are shown in Supplementary Figs. 8 and 9. These results clearly show the RD effect onto the exciton polariton condensates at room temperature.
Polaritons can also be trapped in a smaller perovskite microplate, leading to discrete energy levels (Supplementary Fig. 10). To this end, we choose a smaller perovskite microplate but in the same microcavity to investigate the influence of the RD effect on higherorder polariton modes. From the results shown in Fig. 5, one can see that besides the ground state, the higherorder modes with opposite spins are also split by the RD effect and the circularly polarized momentum space imaging shows a particular spin texture. Thus, this kind of perovskite microcavity can also be used to explore novel nonHermitian physics^{37,38}, involving remarkable and even complicated RD spinsplitting.
Discussion
In this work we use a LCfilled microcavity to demonstrate and investigate the spinresolved distribution of a polariton condensate in real and momentum space at room temperature. The RD effect originating from the anisotropy of the LC microcavity splits the polariton condensate in both real and momentum space. Our work offers the possibility to study nontrivial band structures^{39} based on polariton condensates in a CsPbBr_{3} microcavity at room temperature and the influence of the RD spinsplitting on nonlinear phenomena, such as solitary waves, optical bistability or multistability, modulational instability, and vortices^{32,40}.
Methods
Fabrication of CsPbBr_{3}
Firstly, the Si/SiO_{2} substrate is ultrasonically cleaned with acetone, anhydrous ethanol, and deionized water for 10 min, baked for 2 h to completely dehydrate, and then put into the downstream of a quartz tube installed in a single temperature zone furnace. Secondly, the mixture of PbBr_{2} and CsBr is put into the quartz boat, and then the quartz boat is put into the heating center of the single temperature zone furnace. The furnace is heated and cooled naturally. Finally, the allinorganic CsPbBr_{3} is obtained.
Fabrication of microcavity
The DBR is fabricated through electron beam evaporation of alternating layers of silicon dioxide (SiO_{2}) and tantalum pentoxide(Ta_{2}O_{5}) (8 periods) with the thickness of 91 and 62 nm in a vacuum on glass substrate where a transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) layer with the thickness of around 30 nm acting as electrodes are deposited on the top surface. Before the ITO and DBR layers are fabricated, the glass substrate is cleaned using acetone, anhydrous ethanol, and deionized water for 10 min, then it is baked for 2 h. The center wavelength and the bandwidth of the DBR stop band are 530 and 160 nm, respectively. To fabricate the microcavity, (1) we firstly transfer the CsPbBr_{3} microplates onto the bottom DBR (8 periods) using the dry transfer method. (2) Then the ordering layer (PMMA) with a thickness of around 200 nm is deposited onto the bottom DBR with CsPbBr_{3} microplates. On another hand, the same ordering layer is deposited onto the top DBR (8 periods) under the same condition. (3) The ordering layers are rubbed for the liquid crystal molecules (The liquid crystal was commercially purchased with the parameters: Δn = 0.2, n_{e }= 1.7, n_{o }= 1.5 @590 nm). (4) The microcavity is formed by pasting two DBRs with UV curable adhesive (ergo8500) where glass spacers (Ganzhou Mxene Technology Co., Ltd, the diameter is around 3.5 μm, the cavity length is mainly determined by the spacers) are placed on top of the adhesive. (5) Finally, the liquid crystal is filled into the microcavity by the capillary force with a burette which is very close to the microcavity. (6) We use polarized microscope to check whether the ordering layer and the liquid crystal work or not in the microcavity.
Experimental measurements of microcavity
The voltage onto the microcavity is applied by a voltage source. The optical setup for the experiments can be found in Supplementary Note 2, where the near and farfield imaging is obtained by flipping the second lens in front of the spectrometer.
Data availability
All the data supporting this work are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Code availability
The code for the analysis of the data is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Change history
25 July 2022
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467022320326
References
Manchon, A., Koo, H. C., Nitta, J., Frolov, S. M. & Duine, R. A. New perspectives for Rashba spinorbit coupling. Nat. Mater. 14, 871–882 (2015).
Winkler, R., Papadakis, S. J., De Poortere, E. P. & Shayegan, M. Advances in Solid State Physics: SpinOrbit Coupling in TwoDimensional Electron and Hole Systems, vol 41 (Springer, 2003).
Kato, Y. K., Myers, R. C., Gossard, A. C. & Awschalom, D. D. Observation of the spin Hall effect in semiconductors. Science 306, 1910–1913 (2004).
König, M. et al. Quantum spin Hall insulator state in HgTe quantum wells. Science 318, 766–770 (2007).
Kane, C. L. & Mele, E. J. Z_{2} topological order and the quantum spin Hall effect. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 146802 (2005).
Bernevig, B. A., Hughes, T. L. & Zhang, S. Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells. Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
Hsieh, D. et al. A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase. Nature 452, 970–974 (2008).
Dresselhaus, G. Spinorbit coupling effects in zinc blende structures. Phys. Rev. 100, 580 (1955).
Rashba, E. I. Properties of semiconductors with an extremum loop. I. Cyclotron and combinational resonance in a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the loop. Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109–1122 (1960).
Lin, Y.J., JiménezGarcía, K. & Spielman, I. B. Spinorbitcoupled BoseEinstein condensates. Nature 471, 83–86 (2011).
Liu, X., Borunda, M. F., Liu, X. & Sinova, J. Effect of induced spinorbit coupling for atoms via laser fields. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 046402 (2009).
Li, J.R. et al. A stripe phase with supersolid properties in spinorbitcoupled BoseEinstein condensates. Nature 543, 91–94 (2017).
Deng, H., Weihs, G., Santori, C., Bloch, J. & Yamamoto, Y. Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons. Science 298, 199–202 (2002).
Kasprzak, J. et al. BoseEinstein condensation of exciton polaritons. Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).
Balili, R., Hartwell, V., Snoke, D., Pfeiffer, L. & West, K. BoseEinstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap. Science 316, 1007–1010 (2007).
Whittaker, C. et al. Optical analogue of Dresselhaus spinorbit interaction in photonic graphene. Nat. Photon. 15, 193–196 (2021).
Terças, H., Flayac, H., Solnyshkov, D. & Malpuech, G. NonAbelian gauge fields in photonic cavities and photonic superfluids. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066402 (2014).
Lim, H.T., Togan, E., Kroner, M., MiguelSanchez, J. & Imamoğlu, A. Electrically tunable artificial gauge potential for polaritons. Nat. Commun. 8, 14540 (2017).
Bliokh, K. Y., RodríguezFortuño, F. J., Nori, F. & Zayats, A. V. Spinorbit interactions of light. Nat. Photon. 9, 796–808 (2015).
Bliokh, K. Y., Smirnova, D. & Nori, F. Quantum spin Hall effect of light. Science 348, 1448–1451 (2015).
Bliokh, K. Y., Niv, A., Kleiner, V. & Hasman, E. Geometrodynamics of spinning light. Nat. Photon. 2, 748–753 (2008).
Ma, L. et al. Spinorbit coupling of light in asymmetric microcavities. Nat. Commun. 7, 10983 (2016).
Rechcińska, K. et al. Engineering spinorbit synthetic Hamiltonians in liquidcrystal optical cavities. Science 366, 727–730 (2019).
Muszyński, M. et al. Realizing persistentspinhelix lasing in the regime of RashbaDresselhaus spinorbit coupling in a dyefilled liquidcrystal optical microcavity. Phys. Rev. Appl. 17, 014041 (2022).
Su, R. Observation of exciton polariton condensation in a perovskite lattice at room temperature. Nat. Phys. 16, 301–306 (2020).
Su, R. et al. Room temperature longrange coherent exciton polariton condensate flow in lead halide perovskites. Sci. Adv. 4, 0244 (2018).
Fieramosca, A. et al. Experimental investigation of a nonAbelian gauge field in 2D perovskite photonic platform. Optica 8, 1442–1447 (2021).
Spencer, M. S. et al. Spinorbitcoupled excitonpolariton condensates in lead halide perovskites. Sci. Adv. 7, 7667 (2021).
Polimeno, L. et al. Tuning of the Berry curvature in 2D perovskite polaritons. Nat. Nanotechnol. 16, 1349–1354 (2021).
Su, R. et al. Direct measurement of a nonHermitian topological invariant in a hybrid lightmatter system. Sci. Adv. 7, 8905 (2021).
Su, R., Ghosh, S., Liew, T. C. & Xiong, Q. Optical switching of topological phase in a perovskite polariton lattice. Sci. Adv. 7, 8049 (2021).
Wang, C., Gao, C., Jian, C.M. & Zhai, H. Spinorbit coupled spinor BoseEinstein condensates. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 160403 (2010).
Lekenta, K. et al. Tunable optical spin Hall effect in a liquid crystal microcavity. Light Sci. Appl. 7, 74 (2018).
Wang, J. et al. Room temperature coherently coupled excitonpolaritons in twodimensional organicinorganic perovskite. ACS Nano 12, 8382–8389 (2018).
Fieramosca, A. et al. Twodimensional hybrid perovskites sustaining strong polariton interactions at room temperature. Sci. Adv. 5, 9967 (2019).
Król, M. et al. Realizing optical persistent spin helix and sterngerlach deflection in an anisotropic liquid crystal microcavity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 190401 (2021).
Gao, T. et al. Observation of nonHermitian degeneracies in a chaotic excitonpolariton billiard. Nature 526, 554–558 (2015).
Gao, T. et al. Chiral modes at exceptional points in excitonpolariton quantum fluids. Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 065301 (2018).
Kokhanchik, P., Sigurdsson, H., Piȩtka, B., Szczytko, J. & Lagoudakis, P. G. Photonic Berry curvature in double liquid crystal microcavities with broken inversion symmetry. Phys. Rev. B 103, L081406 (2021).
Ma, X. et al. Realization of alloptical vortex switching in excitonpolariton condensates. Nat. Commun. 11, 897 (2020).
Acknowledgements
T.G. thanks for support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11874278, 12174285). The Paderborn group acknowledges funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the collaborative research center TRR142 (project A04, No. 231447078), Heisenberg program (No. 270619725), and individual grant (No. 467358803).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
T.G. and X.M. conceived the ideas and led the project, Y.L. performed the experiment and analyzed the results, X.M. performed the numerical simulation and theoretical analysis together with S.S. T.G. and X.M. prepared the manuscript with contributions from M.G., H.D., and S.S. Z.X. fabricated the perovskite microplate. All authors discussed the results.
Corresponding authors
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review
Peer review information
Nature Communications thanks Rui Su, and the other, anonymous, reviewer for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Additional information
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supplementary information
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, Y., Ma, X., Zhai, X. et al. Manipulating polariton condensates by RashbaDresselhaus coupling at room temperature. Nat Commun 13, 3785 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467022315294
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467022315294
This article is cited by

Polariton spin Hall effect in a Rashba–Dresselhaus regime at room temperature
Nature Photonics (2024)

Polarization superposition of roomtemperature polariton condensation
Communications Materials (2023)

Roomtemperature polariton quantum fluids in halide perovskites
Nature Communications (2022)
Comments
By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.