a shape displays using pin arrays like the Inform prototype6,7,8. b pins can be miniaturized to fit fingertips like in the NormalTouch prototype9,10. c swarm robots can be used also for encounter haptics as sparse shape displays like in the Hapticbots prototype12. d shape displays using hinged platforms like in Robotic Origami13,14,15. e, f deformable shape displays made of elastic materials like NURBSforms or Surflex prototypes20,21,22.